Neurofibromatosis type 2 [NF2; MIM # 101000] is an autosomal dominant disorder characterised by the occurrence of vestibular schwannomas (VSs), schwannomas of other cranial, spinal and cutaneous nerves, cranial and spinal meningiomas and/or other central nervous system (CNS) tumours (e.g., ependymomas, astrocytomas). Additional features include early onset cataracts, optic nerve sheath meningiomas, retinal hamartomas, dermal schwannomas (i.e., NF2-plaques), and (few) café-au-lait spots. Clinically, NF2 children fall into two main groups: (1) congenital NF2 - with bilateral VSs detected as early as the first days to months of life, which can be stable/asymptomatic for one-two decades and suddenly progress; and (2) severe pre-pubertal (Wishart type) NF2- with multiple (and rapidly progressive) CNS tumours other-than-VS, which usually present first, years before VSs [vs. the classical adult (Gardner type) NF2, with bilateral VSs presenting in young adulthood, sometimes as the only disease feature]. Some individuals can develop unilateral VS associated with ipsilateral meningiomas or multiple schwannomas localised to one part of the peripheral nervous system [i.e., mosaic NF2] or multiple non-VS, non-intradermal cranial, spinal and peripheral schwannomas (histologically proven) [schwannomatosis]. NF2 is caused by mutations in the NF2 gene at chromosome 22q12.1, which encodes for a protein called merlin or schwannomin, most similar to the exrin-readixin-moesin (ERM) proteins; mosaicNF2 is due to mosaic phenomena for the NF2 gene, whilst schwannomatosis is caused by coupled germ-line and mosaic mutations either in the SMARCB1 gene [SWNTS1; MIM # 162091] or the LZTR1 gene [SWNTS2; MIM # 615670] both falling within the 22q region and the NF2 gene. Data driven from in vitro and animal studies on the merlin pathway [e.g., post-translational and upstream/downstream regulation] allowed biologically targeted treatment strategies [e.g., Lapatinib, Erlotinib, Bevacizumab] aimed to multiple tumour shrinkage and/or regression and tumour arrest of progression with functional improvement.
|Titolo:||Childhood neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) and related disorders: from bench to bedside and biologically targeted therapies|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2016|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|