The analysis of viral nucleic acids (NA), DNA or RNA, is a crucial issue in the diagnosis of infections and the treatment and prevention of related human diseases. Conventional nucleic acid tests (NATs) require multistep approaches starting from the purification of the pathogen genetic material in biological samples to the end of its detection, basically performed by the consolidated polymerase chain reaction (PCR), by the use of specialized instruments and dedicated laboratories. However, since the current NATs are too constraining and time and cost consuming, the research is evolving towards more integrated, decentralized, user-friendly, and low-cost methods. These will allow the implementation of massive diagnoses addressing the growing demand of fast and accurate viral analysis facing such global alerts as the pandemic of coronavirus disease of the recent period. Silicon-based technology and microfluidics, in this sense, brought an important step up, leading to the introduction of the genetic point-of-care (PoC) systems. This review goes through the evolution of the analytical methods for the viral NA diagnosis of infection diseases, highlighting both advantages and drawbacks of the innovative emerging technologies versus the conventional approaches.

Nucleic Acids Analytical Methods for Viral Infection Diagnosis: State-of-the-Art and Future Perspectives

Sciuto, EL;Leonardi, AA;Irrera, A;Conoci, S
2021

Abstract

The analysis of viral nucleic acids (NA), DNA or RNA, is a crucial issue in the diagnosis of infections and the treatment and prevention of related human diseases. Conventional nucleic acid tests (NATs) require multistep approaches starting from the purification of the pathogen genetic material in biological samples to the end of its detection, basically performed by the consolidated polymerase chain reaction (PCR), by the use of specialized instruments and dedicated laboratories. However, since the current NATs are too constraining and time and cost consuming, the research is evolving towards more integrated, decentralized, user-friendly, and low-cost methods. These will allow the implementation of massive diagnoses addressing the growing demand of fast and accurate viral analysis facing such global alerts as the pandemic of coronavirus disease of the recent period. Silicon-based technology and microfluidics, in this sense, brought an important step up, leading to the introduction of the genetic point-of-care (PoC) systems. This review goes through the evolution of the analytical methods for the viral NA diagnosis of infection diseases, highlighting both advantages and drawbacks of the innovative emerging technologies versus the conventional approaches.
infections diagnosis
viral NA analysis
point-of-care
silicon-based technologies
microfluidics
Animals
Biosensing Techniques
COVID-19
DNA, Viral
Genome, Viral
Humans
Oxidation-Reduction
Pandemics
Polymerase Chain Reaction
RNA, Viral
SARS-CoV-2
Virus Diseases
COVID-19 Testing
Lab-On-A-Chip Devices
Point-of-Care Systems
File in questo prodotto:
Non ci sono file associati a questo prodotto.

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11769/535078
Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? ND
  • Scopus 0
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? 0
social impact