AIMS: Reference standards for orthodontic diagnosis, such as linear and angular cephalometric measurements of the face and cranial base differ between girls and boys and change with age. Therefore, the aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine cephalometric standards in a large sample of children from the southern part of Italy. MATERIALS AND METHOD: Initial lateral cephalograms of healthy children, with various types of occlusion and with no history of orthodontic treatment, were examined by one operator with no attempt to select only subjects with balanced and acceptable profiles. For the analysis 1059 lateral cephalograms of healthy children, between 8 to 12 years, with various types of occlusion, all with no history of orthodontic treatment before cephalometric analysis were examined. Seven angular and three linear measurements, and three ratios were considered. The angular measurements were SNA, SNB and ANB angles, the divergency angle SN^GoMe, the angle of the upper maxillary inclination PN^Pal, the upper and lower incisor inclination I^SN, i^GoMe. The three linear parameters were the length of the anterior cranial base Se-N, the length of the maxillary body PNS-A1, and the length of the mandibular body Go-Pg. The three ratios were the anterior cranial base to maxillary length Se-N/PNS-A1, the anterior cranial base to mandibular length Se-N/Go-Pg, and the maxillary to mandibular length PNS -A1/Go-Pg. RESULTS: Changes in angular and linear parameters during the observation period occurred mostly between the ages of 10 and 12 years. The three ratios varied from age and were not characterised by a progressive rise in mean values. Se-N/Go-Pg was greater in 11 (P < 0.05) and 12 (P < 0.01) year-old boys; the cranio-maxillary index Se-N/PNS-A1 was greater in 9-year-old girls (P < 0.05), whereas the maxilla-mandibular index PNSA1/ Go-Pg was greater in 9-year-old boys (P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: The findings provided useful reference cephalometric normative measurements for the 8 to-12 year old southern Italian child population. Significant differences between boys and girls in the length of the anterior cranial base and ratio were observed.

A CEPHALOMETRIC ANALYSIS OF THE DIFFERENCES IN CRANIOFACIAL CHARACTERISTICS: STUDY FROM LARGE A SOUTHERN ITALIAN COHORT

Gaetano Isola
Writing – Review & Editing
2018

Abstract

AIMS: Reference standards for orthodontic diagnosis, such as linear and angular cephalometric measurements of the face and cranial base differ between girls and boys and change with age. Therefore, the aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine cephalometric standards in a large sample of children from the southern part of Italy. MATERIALS AND METHOD: Initial lateral cephalograms of healthy children, with various types of occlusion and with no history of orthodontic treatment, were examined by one operator with no attempt to select only subjects with balanced and acceptable profiles. For the analysis 1059 lateral cephalograms of healthy children, between 8 to 12 years, with various types of occlusion, all with no history of orthodontic treatment before cephalometric analysis were examined. Seven angular and three linear measurements, and three ratios were considered. The angular measurements were SNA, SNB and ANB angles, the divergency angle SN^GoMe, the angle of the upper maxillary inclination PN^Pal, the upper and lower incisor inclination I^SN, i^GoMe. The three linear parameters were the length of the anterior cranial base Se-N, the length of the maxillary body PNS-A1, and the length of the mandibular body Go-Pg. The three ratios were the anterior cranial base to maxillary length Se-N/PNS-A1, the anterior cranial base to mandibular length Se-N/Go-Pg, and the maxillary to mandibular length PNS -A1/Go-Pg. RESULTS: Changes in angular and linear parameters during the observation period occurred mostly between the ages of 10 and 12 years. The three ratios varied from age and were not characterised by a progressive rise in mean values. Se-N/Go-Pg was greater in 11 (P < 0.05) and 12 (P < 0.01) year-old boys; the cranio-maxillary index Se-N/PNS-A1 was greater in 9-year-old girls (P < 0.05), whereas the maxilla-mandibular index PNSA1/ Go-Pg was greater in 9-year-old boys (P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: The findings provided useful reference cephalometric normative measurements for the 8 to-12 year old southern Italian child population. Significant differences between boys and girls in the length of the anterior cranial base and ratio were observed.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11769/360992
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