Objectives Vitamin D has been considered to possess anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial activity which may be a link for the known interaction of periodontitis (CP) and coronary heart disease (CHD). This study investigated the association between serum vitamin D levels and periodontitis in patients with CP and with CHD. Furthermore, the objective was to determine if periodontitis and CHD had an impact on serum vitamin D levels. Methods Using a cross-sectional design, a total of 39 patients with CP, 38 patients with CHD, 38 patients with both CP and CHD, and 37 healthy subjects were enrolled in the present study. The non-parametric Spearman correlation test was applied in order to assess the existence of significant interdependence between vitamin D and all periodontal parameters. In order to assess changes in periodontal parameters within a change in Vitamin D Levels, a p-trend for vitamin D, the Jonckheere-Terpstra Test was applied. Results Patients in the CP (21.3±5.9 ng/ml) and in the CP + CHD (19.2±6.7 ng/ml) group presented a significantly lower mean serum level of vitamin D compared to patients in the CHD (24.3±3.5 ng/ml) and healthy control groups (28.6±5.5 ng/ml) (p<0.001). Vitamin D levels were positively correlated with the number of teeth and negatively with C-reactive protein (CRP) and all periodontal parameters (p<0.001). In all patients there was a proportional increase of vitamin D levels with a progressive increase in number of teeth (P-trend <0.001) while there was a proportional decrease in vitamin D levels with a progressive increase in clinical attachment level (CAL, P-trend= 0.001), probing depth (PD, P-trend= 0.007) and bleeding sites (BOP, P-trend <0.001) levels. Conclusions Patients with CP and CP+CHD presented a significantly lower serum level of vitamin D compared to CHD and healthy controls. Moreover, the presence of CP negatively influenced serum vitamin D levels.
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