The integration of energy storage systems (ESS) in PV plants is a very topical subject. In recent years, many research activities have been addressed to PV plants combined with batteries. Most of the papers in literature refer to plants for residential or industrial users with significant self-consumptions. Only a few papers investigate on ESS for utility-scale PV plants and on the optimal energy management strategies, some examples are in , . As a contribution to fill this gap, this paper presents a study on a specific power layout in which the ESS is distributed into the PV field and no longer centralized close to the inverter cabin, as for the majority of the existent PV plants with ESS. Focus is on the design and implementation of suitable models for both the PV field and the ESS with the purpose to establish optimal energy management strategies. The validation process of such models has been carried out through laboratory tests as well as exploiting data coming from the monitoring system of a real PV plant in Central Italy.
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