Microglia, together with astrocytes and pericytes, cooperate to ensure blood-brain barrier (BBB) stability, modulating endothelial responses to inflammatory insults. Agonists of the sphingosine 1 phosphate (S1P) receptors, such as siponimod (BAF-312), are important pharmacological tools in multiple sclerosis and other inflammatory diseases. Modulation of S1P receptors may result in a reduced inflammatory response and increased BBB stability. An in vitro BBB model was reproduced using human-derived endothelial cells, astrocytes and microglia. Co-cultures were exposed to inflammatory cytokines (TNF alpha, 10 UI and IFN gamma, 5 UI) in the presence of BAF-312 (100 nM), and the BBB properties and microglia role were evaluated. The drug facilitated microglial migration towards endothelial/astrocyte co-cultures, involving the activity of the metalloprotease 2 (MMP2). Microglia actively cooperated with astrocytes in the maintenance of endothelial barrier stability: in the triple co-culture, selective treatment of microglial cells with BAF-312 significantly prevented cytokines' effects on the endothelial barrier. In conclusion, BAF-312, modulating S1P receptors in microglia, may contribute to the reinforcement of the endothelial barrier at the BBB, suggesting an additional effect of the drug in the treatment of multiple sclerosis.

Microglia Contributes to BAF-312 Effects on Blood-Brain Barrier Stability

Spampinato, SF
Primo
;
Merlo, S;
2022-01-01

Abstract

Microglia, together with astrocytes and pericytes, cooperate to ensure blood-brain barrier (BBB) stability, modulating endothelial responses to inflammatory insults. Agonists of the sphingosine 1 phosphate (S1P) receptors, such as siponimod (BAF-312), are important pharmacological tools in multiple sclerosis and other inflammatory diseases. Modulation of S1P receptors may result in a reduced inflammatory response and increased BBB stability. An in vitro BBB model was reproduced using human-derived endothelial cells, astrocytes and microglia. Co-cultures were exposed to inflammatory cytokines (TNF alpha, 10 UI and IFN gamma, 5 UI) in the presence of BAF-312 (100 nM), and the BBB properties and microglia role were evaluated. The drug facilitated microglial migration towards endothelial/astrocyte co-cultures, involving the activity of the metalloprotease 2 (MMP2). Microglia actively cooperated with astrocytes in the maintenance of endothelial barrier stability: in the triple co-culture, selective treatment of microglial cells with BAF-312 significantly prevented cytokines' effects on the endothelial barrier. In conclusion, BAF-312, modulating S1P receptors in microglia, may contribute to the reinforcement of the endothelial barrier at the BBB, suggesting an additional effect of the drug in the treatment of multiple sclerosis.
endothelial cells
siponimod
HMC3 cells
CCL5
CCR5
claudin-5
barrier permeability
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11769/542464
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