Purpose: The aim of this review is to provide an update of the technical nuances of microsurgical and endoscopic-assisted approaches to the craniovertebral junction (transnasal, transoral, and transcervical), and to report on the available clinical results in order to identify the best strategy. Methods: A nonsystematic update of the reviews and reporting on the anatomical and clinical results of endoscopic-assisted and microsurgical approaches to the craniovertebral junction (CVJ) was performed. Results: Pure endonasal and cervical endoscopic approaches still have some disadvantages, including their steep learning curves and their deeper surgical fields. Endoscopically assisted transoral surgery with 30° endoscopes represents an emerging option compared with standard microsurgical techniques for transoral approaches to the anterior CVJ. This approach should be considered as complementary to, rather than as an alternative to the traditional transoral-transpharyngeal approach. Conclusions: The transoral (microsurgical or video-assisted) approach with sparing of the soft palate still remains the gold standard compared with the “pure” transnasal and transcervical approaches, due to the wider working channel provided by the former technique. The transnasal endoscopic approach alone appears to be superior when the CVJ lesion exceeds the upper limit of the inferior third of the clivus. Of particular interest is the evidence that advances in reduction techniques can avoid the ventral approach.

Direct and oblique approaches to the craniovertebral junction: Nuances of microsurgical and endoscope-assisted techniques along with a review of the literature

RAUDINO, GIUSEPPE;BARBAGALLO, GIUSEPPE MARIA
2017

Abstract

Purpose: The aim of this review is to provide an update of the technical nuances of microsurgical and endoscopic-assisted approaches to the craniovertebral junction (transnasal, transoral, and transcervical), and to report on the available clinical results in order to identify the best strategy. Methods: A nonsystematic update of the reviews and reporting on the anatomical and clinical results of endoscopic-assisted and microsurgical approaches to the craniovertebral junction (CVJ) was performed. Results: Pure endonasal and cervical endoscopic approaches still have some disadvantages, including their steep learning curves and their deeper surgical fields. Endoscopically assisted transoral surgery with 30° endoscopes represents an emerging option compared with standard microsurgical techniques for transoral approaches to the anterior CVJ. This approach should be considered as complementary to, rather than as an alternative to the traditional transoral-transpharyngeal approach. Conclusions: The transoral (microsurgical or video-assisted) approach with sparing of the soft palate still remains the gold standard compared with the “pure” transnasal and transcervical approaches, due to the wider working channel provided by the former technique. The transnasal endoscopic approach alone appears to be superior when the CVJ lesion exceeds the upper limit of the inferior third of the clivus. Of particular interest is the evidence that advances in reduction techniques can avoid the ventral approach.
Craniovertebral junction; Transcervical approach; Transnasal approach; Transoral approach; Surgery; Neurology (clinical)
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11769/309891
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