Aim: Functional movements of the stomatognathic system and their relative forces depend on signals arising from various sensory organs in the orofacial structures. A special role is played by periodontal mechanoreceptors and their sensory innervation, located in the periodontal ligament, that is the optimal location for detecting the functional forces on the teeth. They are involved in mechanotransduction and chewing motor control, but there are important limitations of knowledge in the field. For exemple, even though mastication is a dynamic process, studies regarding periodontal mechanoreceptors are usually conducted in static conditions and mostly in animals, that are characterized by different teeth and occlusion with respect to the humans, often disregarding the functional differences of teeth.This work aims to review the progress in the field, especially during the last three years, with a special attention to the functional significance of experimental results. There have been a number of molecular reports; however, to understand the impact of these reports on the mechanisms of motor control we need to go back to the earliest physiological studies and these have been integrated with recent molecular data. The main results of basic research have been summarized, dividing the animal from the human studies and the signal pathways arising from mechanotransduction have been described. Methods: A systematic review of the literature was conducted. Original articles were searched through Pubmed, Cochrane Central database and Embase until January 2016. Results: 1466 articles were identified through database searching and screened by reviewing the abstracts. 160 full-text were assessed for eligibility, and after 109 exclusion, 51 articles were included in the review process. Studies selected by the review process were mainly divided in studies on animal and studies on humans. Morphological, histological, molecular and electrophysiological studies investigating the periodontal mechanoreceptors in animals and in humans were included and subdivided in the following subheadings: Histological and electrophysiological studies in animals: are the results in agreement? - Changes during development; - Load response; - periodontal ligament as a source of mesenchymal-like stem cells. Molecular and electrophysiological studies in humans: what do we really know? - adaptation to implant-supported prosthesis; Central connections of the trigeminal primary afferent neurons: is there a bias in the basic research? From mechanotransduction to signal pathways: the role of periodontal mechanoreceptors on the chewing pattern motor control. Conclusions: Our knowledge of the periodontal mechanoreceptors let us conclude that they are very refined neural receptors, deeply involved in the activation and coordination of the masticatory muscles during function. Strictly linked to the rigid structure of the teeth, they determine all the functional physiological and pathological processes of the stomatognathic system. The knowledge of their complex features is fundamental for all dental professionists. Further investigations are of utmost importance for guiding the technological advances in the respect of the neural control in the dental field.
|Titolo:||Periodontal mechanoreceptors: a systematic review|
ISOLA, GAETANO [Membro del Collaboration Group]
|Data di pubblicazione:||2017|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.5 Abstract in rivista|