Water is the basic constituent of all living beings; it is, therefore, an essential dietary element and a primary resource. The International standard references concerning drinking-water are various and, based on WHO guidelines (WHO 2004), are diversified in relation to local problems. Disinfection of water for human consumption could be considered the most significant public health measure taken during the last century; destroying pathogens in drinking water has drastically reduced the incidence of waterborne diseases in all industrialized countries. Chlorination is currently used as water treatment due to its action; it is preferred to ozonization because is less expensive and leads to residual action. The use of hypochlorite ion (ClO–) is preferred to chlorination by chlorine dioxide (ClO2) and chlorine gas (Cl2); however, it does not guarantee the absolute absence of risks. The addition of those chemicals to water leads to the formation of other compounds, many of which are toxic, as they can cause, among other things, chronic diseases and cancer. This review will primarily highlight the risks that chlorination, as a water purifying treatment, may pose to the population health, as it causes the formation of various by-products, many of which are known to be carcinogenic. Epidemiological studies have been carried out in order to highlight the possible excess of cancer in populations drinking water treated with chlorine or ozone. Trihalomethanes, Haloacetic acid, Haloacetonitriles, 3-chloro-4-dichloromethyl-5- hydroxy-2(5H)-furanone or MX and bromate are all identified as Disinfection/ Disinfection By-Products.
|Titolo:||Carcinogens from water disinfection|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2011|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||2.1 Contributo in volume (Capitolo o Saggio)|