Interactions between genes and environmental factors critically modulate individual’s healthy and diseased states, including the vulnerability to certain major neurologic disorders such as Parkinson’s disease (PD). PD is the most common neurodegenerative disorder affecting approximately 1% of the population over age 65. Although most cases of PD are observed later in life, there is evidence that the disease has progressed to the point at which it is diagnosed. PD is of unknown origin but presumably of multifactorial etiology. Several genes that cause certain forms of inherited PD (o10% cases) have been identified, but the majority of cases (490%) appear to be sporadic and are likely to represent an interplay between genetic and environmental influences. More men than women develop PD; aging and menopause in women (estrogen deficiency) are the recognized risk factors. Polymorphisms in candidate genes involved in dopamine metabolism, mitochondrial function, lipoprotein metabolism, inflammation, and xenobiotic detoxification have been described. Living in rural areas, pesticides and heavy metals exposures, head injury, and infectious diseases during childhood have also been suggested to increase the risk; whereas smoking and consumption of coffee, dietary factors, exercising and social interactions, or the use of certain nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) reportedly reduce the incidence/risk and severity of PD.
|Titolo:||Vulnerability to Parkinson's Disease: Towards an Unifying Theory of Disease Etiology|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2011|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||2.1 Contributo in volume (Capitolo o Saggio)|