Cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) are cell surface proteins involved in the binding of cells, usually leukocytes, to each other, to endothelial cells, or to extracellular matrix. Specific signals produced in response to wounding and infection control the expression and activation of certain of these adhesion molecules. The interactions and responses then initiated by binding of these CAMs to their receptors/ligands play important roles in the mediation of the inflammatory and immune reactions that consult one line of the body's defense against these insults. Most of the CAMs characterized so far fall into three general families of proteins: the immunoglobulin (Ig) superfamily, the integrin family, or the selectine family. Recent studies have indicated that selectins (E,L,P) are implicated in cell trafficking, an important aspect of inflammation-related process. Regulation of white blood cell trafficking from the blood vascular compartment to regions of pathogenic exposure is one of the most important functions of the immune system. The distinct phases of leukocyte migration include: rolling, activation, firm adhesion, transendothelial migration and subendothelial migration. The selectins have been implicated in the first step of this cascade. An inflammatory response is first evoked in the pulpal tissue in an attempt to neutralize the injurious agent and to dispose of damaged tissue and cells. The pulpal vessels dilate and blood flow to the tooth increases. At the same time, permeability of the vessels increases allowing leakage of fluid and leukocytes into the tissue.
|Titolo:||The role of cell adhesion molecules in the formation of periapical granulomas|
|Autori interni:||RAPISARDA, Ernesto|
|Data di pubblicazione:||1998|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|