We synthesized a series of photochromic [1,3]oxazines and investigated their photochemical properties in solution and within rigid polymer matrices. These compounds share a common molecular skeleton, consisting of fused 3H-indole and nitrobenzooxazine heterocycles. They differ in the groups in the para (R(1)) and/or ortho (R(2)) positions, relative to the nitrogen atom, of the 3H-indole fragment and/or that (R(3)) attached to the chiral center of the [1,3]oxazine ring. Specifically, R(1) call be a hydrogen atom, a methoxy group, a nitro group, or a fluorine atom, R(2) can be a hydrogen or fluorine atom. and R(3) call be a phenyl, 4-methoxyphenyl. 4-dimethylaminophenyl. or 2-(4-dimethylaminophenyl)ethylene group. When R(1) and R(2) are hydrogen atoms. the excitation of the photochrome opens the [1,3]oxazine ring, in less than 6 ns. with quantum yields of 0.01-0.11 in acetonitrile at 20 degrees C. This process generates a zwitterionic isomer, incorporating a 3H-indolium cation and a 4-nitrophenolate anion. Consistently, the characteristic ground-state absorption of the a 4-nitrophenolate appears at 440 nm in the transient spectrum. When R(3) is a 2-(4-dimethylamminophenyl)-ethylene group, the spectrum reveals also all additional hand at 550 nm for the extended pi-system associated with the photogenerated 3H-indolium cation. When R(3) is a hydrogen atom, the nature of R(1) controls the photochemical behavior of these compounds. In particular, the presence of a methoxy group at R(1) prevents the photoinduced ring-opening, while the introduction of a fluorine atom increases the quantum yield of the photochemical transformation to 0.29. In all instances, the transient absorptions decay monoexponentially with the reisomerization of the zwitterionic species back to the original state. Interestingly, R(1) and R(2) have negligible influence on the lifetime of the photogenerated isomer, which instead changes from 21 ns to 10 mu s With the nature of R(3). Indeed, this group dictates the stability of the 3H-indolium cation of the zwitterionic isomer and, hence, the reisomerization kinetics. Furthermore, Our photochromic Compounds tolerate hundreds of switching cycles with no sign of decomposition. even in the presence of molecular oxygen, and call be operated effectively within rigid poly(methyl methacrylate) matrices. In Summary, our investigations demonstrate that the color, efficiency, and speed of our photochromic [1,3]oxazines can be manipulated with the careful selection of their substituents without compromising their excellent fatigue resistances. Thus. photoresponsive materials with tunable properties call eventually emerge front our insights oil the stereoelectronic factors regulating the photochromism of this particular family of heterocyclic compounds. RI Sortino, Salvatore/E-4684-2011; deniz, erhan/B-6994-2009

Substituent Effects on the Photochromism of Bichromophoric Oxazines

SORTINO, Salvatore;
2009

Abstract

We synthesized a series of photochromic [1,3]oxazines and investigated their photochemical properties in solution and within rigid polymer matrices. These compounds share a common molecular skeleton, consisting of fused 3H-indole and nitrobenzooxazine heterocycles. They differ in the groups in the para (R(1)) and/or ortho (R(2)) positions, relative to the nitrogen atom, of the 3H-indole fragment and/or that (R(3)) attached to the chiral center of the [1,3]oxazine ring. Specifically, R(1) call be a hydrogen atom, a methoxy group, a nitro group, or a fluorine atom, R(2) can be a hydrogen or fluorine atom. and R(3) call be a phenyl, 4-methoxyphenyl. 4-dimethylaminophenyl. or 2-(4-dimethylaminophenyl)ethylene group. When R(1) and R(2) are hydrogen atoms. the excitation of the photochrome opens the [1,3]oxazine ring, in less than 6 ns. with quantum yields of 0.01-0.11 in acetonitrile at 20 degrees C. This process generates a zwitterionic isomer, incorporating a 3H-indolium cation and a 4-nitrophenolate anion. Consistently, the characteristic ground-state absorption of the a 4-nitrophenolate appears at 440 nm in the transient spectrum. When R(3) is a 2-(4-dimethylamminophenyl)-ethylene group, the spectrum reveals also all additional hand at 550 nm for the extended pi-system associated with the photogenerated 3H-indolium cation. When R(3) is a hydrogen atom, the nature of R(1) controls the photochemical behavior of these compounds. In particular, the presence of a methoxy group at R(1) prevents the photoinduced ring-opening, while the introduction of a fluorine atom increases the quantum yield of the photochemical transformation to 0.29. In all instances, the transient absorptions decay monoexponentially with the reisomerization of the zwitterionic species back to the original state. Interestingly, R(1) and R(2) have negligible influence on the lifetime of the photogenerated isomer, which instead changes from 21 ns to 10 mu s With the nature of R(3). Indeed, this group dictates the stability of the 3H-indolium cation of the zwitterionic isomer and, hence, the reisomerization kinetics. Furthermore, Our photochromic Compounds tolerate hundreds of switching cycles with no sign of decomposition. even in the presence of molecular oxygen, and call be operated effectively within rigid poly(methyl methacrylate) matrices. In Summary, our investigations demonstrate that the color, efficiency, and speed of our photochromic [1,3]oxazines can be manipulated with the careful selection of their substituents without compromising their excellent fatigue resistances. Thus. photoresponsive materials with tunable properties call eventually emerge front our insights oil the stereoelectronic factors regulating the photochromism of this particular family of heterocyclic compounds. RI Sortino, Salvatore/E-4684-2011; deniz, erhan/B-6994-2009
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11769/12172
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