Statistical Process Control monitoring of the ratio Z of two normal variables X and Y has received too little attention in quality control literature. Several applications dealing with monitoring the ratio Z can be found in the industrial sector, when quality control of products consisting of several raw materials calls for monitoring their proportions (ratios) within a product. Tables about the statistical performance of these charts are still not available. This paper investigates the statistical performance of Phase II Shewhart control charts monitoring the ratio of two normal variables in the case of individual observations. The obtained results show that the performance of the proposed charts is a function of the distribution parameters of the two normal variables. In particular, the Shewhart chart monitoring the ratio Z outperforms the (p=2) multivariate T^2 control chart when a process shift affects the in-control mean of X or, alternatively, of Y and the correlation among X and Y is high and when the in-control means of X and Y shift contemporarily to opposite directions. The sensitivity of the proposed chart to a shift of the in-control dispersion has been investigated, too. We also show that the standardization of the two variables before computing their ratio is not a good practice due to a significant loss in the chart’s statistical performance. An illustrative example from the food industry details the implementation of the ratio control chart.
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