The efficiency of the future devices for quantum information processing is limited mostly by the finite decoherence rates of the individual qubits and quantum gates. Recently, substantial progress was achieved in enhancing the time within which a solid-state qubit demonstrates coherent dynamics. This progress is based mostly on a successful isolation of the qubits from external decoherence sources obtained by engineering. Under these conditions, the material-inherent sources of noise start to play a crucial role. In most cases, quantum devices are affected by noise decreasing with frequency f approximately as 1/f. According to the present point of view, such noise is due to material-and device-specific microscopic degrees of freedom interacting with quantum variables of the nanodevice. The simplest picture is that the environment that destroys the phase coherence of the device can be thought of as a system of two-state fluctuators, which experience random hops between their states. If the hopping times are distributed in an exponentially broad domain, the resulting fluctuations have a spectrum close to 1/f in a large frequency range. This paper reviews the current state of the theory of decoherence due to degrees of freedom producing 1/f noise. Basic mechanisms of such noises in various nanodevices are discussed and several models describing the interaction of the noise sources with quantum devices are reviewed. The main focus of the review is to analyze how the 1/f noise destroys their coherent operation. The start is from individual qubits concentrating mostly on the devices based on superconductor circuits and then some special issues related to more complicated architectures are discussed. Finally, several strategies for minimizing the noise-induced decoherence are considered.

1/f noise: implications for solid-state quantum information

PALADINO, ELISABETTA
;
FALCI, Giuseppe;
2014-01-01

Abstract

The efficiency of the future devices for quantum information processing is limited mostly by the finite decoherence rates of the individual qubits and quantum gates. Recently, substantial progress was achieved in enhancing the time within which a solid-state qubit demonstrates coherent dynamics. This progress is based mostly on a successful isolation of the qubits from external decoherence sources obtained by engineering. Under these conditions, the material-inherent sources of noise start to play a crucial role. In most cases, quantum devices are affected by noise decreasing with frequency f approximately as 1/f. According to the present point of view, such noise is due to material-and device-specific microscopic degrees of freedom interacting with quantum variables of the nanodevice. The simplest picture is that the environment that destroys the phase coherence of the device can be thought of as a system of two-state fluctuators, which experience random hops between their states. If the hopping times are distributed in an exponentially broad domain, the resulting fluctuations have a spectrum close to 1/f in a large frequency range. This paper reviews the current state of the theory of decoherence due to degrees of freedom producing 1/f noise. Basic mechanisms of such noises in various nanodevices are discussed and several models describing the interaction of the noise sources with quantum devices are reviewed. The main focus of the review is to analyze how the 1/f noise destroys their coherent operation. The start is from individual qubits concentrating mostly on the devices based on superconductor circuits and then some special issues related to more complicated architectures are discussed. Finally, several strategies for minimizing the noise-induced decoherence are considered.
LOW-FREQUENCY NOISE; SINGLE-ELECTRON TRANSISTOR; SUPERCONDUCTING FLUX QUBIT; PARITY-INDUCED SUPPRESSION; JUNCTION DC SQUIDS; LOW-TEMPERATURES; SPECTRAL DIFFUSION; COULOMB-BLOCKADE; JOSEPHSON-JUNCTIONS; TUNNEL-JUNCTIONS
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11769/15872
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