Late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD) is the most common form of dementia in the elderly. LOAD has a complex and largely unknown etiology with strong genetic determinants. Genetics of LOAD is known to involve several genetic risk factors among which the Apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene seems to be the major recognized genetic determinant. Recent efforts have been made to identify other genetic factors involved in the pathophysiology of LOAD such as genes associated with a deficit of neurotrophic factors in the AD brain. Genetic variations of neurotrophic factors, such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and transforming-growth-factor-beta 1 (TGF-beta 1) are known to increase the risk to develop LOAD and have also been related to depression susceptibility in LOAD. Transforming-Growth-Factor-beta 1 (TGF-beta 1) is a neurotrophic factor that exerts neuroprotective effects against beta-amyloid-induced neurodegeneration. Recent evidence suggests that a specific impairment in the signaling of TGF-beta is an early event in the pathogenesis of AD. TGF-beta 1 protein levels are predominantly under genetic control, and the TGF-beta 1 gene, located on chromosome 19q13.1-3, contains several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) upstream and in the transcript region, such as the SNP at codon + 10 (T/C) and + 25 (G/C), which is known to influence the level of expression of TGF-beta 1. In the present review, we summarize the current literature on genetic risk factors for LOAD, focusing on the role of the TGF-beta 1 gene, finally discussing the possible implications of these genetic studies for the selection of patients eligible for neuroprotective strategies in AD.
|Titolo:||Role of the Transforming-Growth-Factor-beta 1 Gene in Late-Onset Alzheimer's Disease: Implications for the Treatment|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2013|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|