One of the most common problems in the image forensics field is the reconstruction of the history of an image or a video. The data related to the characteristics of the camera that carried out the shooting, together with the reconstruction of the (possible) further processing, allow us to have some useful hints about the originality of the visual document under analysis. For example, if an image has been subjected to more than one JPEG compression, we can state that the considered image is not the exact bitstream generated by the camera at the time of shooting. It is then useful to estimate the quantization steps of the first compression, which, in case of JPEG images edited and then saved again in the same format, are no more available in the embedded metadata. In this paper, we present a novel algorithm to achieve this goal in case of double JPEG compressed images. The proposed approach copes with the case when the second quantization step is lower than the first one, exploiting the effects of successive quantizations followed by dequantizations. To improve the results of the estimation, a proper filtering strategy together with a function devoted to find the first quantization step, have been designed. Experimental results and comparisons with the state-of-the-art methods, confirm the effectiveness of the proposed approach.
|Titolo:||First Quantization Matrix Estimation From Double Compressed JPEG Images|
|Autori interni:||BATTIATO, SEBASTIANO|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2014|
|Rivista:||IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INFORMATION FORENSICS AND SECURITY|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|