Morpho-productive evaluation in combination with molecular studies has received great attention for their synergetic action in the characterization of plant species. Guar (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba (L) Taub.) is an annual legume crop that in the last century gained great interest as an industrial crop due to the galactomannan content of its grain. Guar genotypes adapted to India and the United States have been selected, while genotypes suitable for the Mediterranean environment able to maximize seed production, are missing. In the present study valuable morpho-agronomic traits such as growth habit, pods per plant and seeds per pod were assessed and genetic traits were investigated as selection criterion for breeding purposes. Pods per plant resulted negatively associated with seeds per pod and with 1000 seed weight. Present data underline that morpho-agronomic evaluation together with molecular analysis through AFLP markers could be an appropriate approach to individuate elite lines for future breeding programs of the species. Among studied genotypes, Monument seems to show the best morpho-productive traits for cultivation in the Mediterranean environment such as a short crop cycle, an elevated height of the first fertile node, a lack of branches and a good seed production. Lewis also seems interesting, even though a little less early and with a greater number of branches, but also with a higher seed production.
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