In rat pancreatic islets chronically exposed to high glucose or high free fatty acid (FFA) levels, glucose-induced insulin release and mitochondrial glucose oxidation are impaired. These abnormalities are associated with high basal ATP levels but a decreased glucose-induced ATP production (Delta of increment over baseline 0.7 +/- 0.5 or 0.5 +/- 0.3 pmol/islet in islets exposed to glucose or FFA vs. 12.0 +/- 0.6 in control islets, n = 3; P < 0.01) and, as a consequence, with an altered ATP/ADP ratio. To investigate further the mechanism of the impaired ATP formation, we measured in rat pancreatic islets glucose-stimulated pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) activity, a key enzyme for pyruvate metabolism and for the subsequent glucose oxidation through the Krebs cycle, and also the uncoupling protein-2 (UCP-2) content by Western blot. In islets exposed to high glucose or FFA, glucose-stimulated PDH activity was impaired and UCP-2 was overexpressed. Because UCP-2 expression is modulated by a peroxisome proliferator- activated receptor (PPAR)-dependent pathway, we measured PPAR-gamma contents by Western blot and the effects of a PPAR-gamma antagonist. PPAR-gamma levels were overexpressed in islets cultured with high FFA levels but unaffected in islets exposed to high glucose. In islets exposed to high FFA concentration, a PPAR-gamma antagonist was able to prevent UCP-2 overexpression and to restore insulin secretion and the ATP/ADP ratio. These data indicate that in rat pancreatic islets chronically exposed to high glucose or FFA, glucose-induced impairment of insulin secretion is associated with (and might be due to) altered mitochondrial function, which results in impaired glucose oxidation, overexpression of the UCP-2 protein, and a consequent decrease of ATP production. This alteration in FFA cultured islets is mediated by the PPAR-gamma pathway.
|Titolo:||Role of ATP Production and Uncoupling Protein-2 in the Insulin Secretory Defect Induced by Chronic Exposure to High Glucose or Free Fatty Acids and Effects of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-gamma Inhibition|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2002|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|