Over the past 3 decades, Nickel-Titanium (NiTi) instruments have become an important part of the armamentarium for shaping phase of root canal treatment. NiTi endodontic files have increased flexibility and strength compared with stainless steel instruments, but they seem to be vulnerable to fracture in clinical situations. Many variables might contribute to file separation, but the 2 main causes are cyclic fatigue and torsional stress. Heat treatment (thermal processing) is one of the most fundamental approaches toward adjusting the transition temperatures of NiTi alloys and affecting the fatigue and torsional resistance of NiTi endodontic files. In recent years, novel thermo-mechanical processing and manufacturing technologies such as controlled memory wire (CM-wire), M-Wire and electrical discharge machining (EDM) have been developed to optimize the microstructure of NiTi alloys and their mechanical properties. Aim of this work was to investigate the torsional resistance (maximum torque load, and angular rotation) of NiTi instruments made by different thermo-mechanical and manufacturing processes. One-hundred new Hyflex EDM One- File (#25/0.08, CM-wire and EDM process), WaveOne Primary (#25/0.08, M-wire), ProTaper Next X2 (#25/0.06, M-wire), Hyflex CM (#25/0.06, CM-wire) and F6 SkyTaper(#25/0.06, conventional NiTi) files were used. Torque and angle of rotation at failure of new instruments (n = 20) were measured using a torsiometer according to ISO 3630-1 for each brand. Data were analyzed using the analysis of variance test and the Student- Newman-Keuls test for multiple comparisons. The fracture surface of each fragment was examined with a scanning electron microscope. Files made by CM wire size #25, 0.06 taper (Hyflex CM) showed same torque load and angular rotation to fracture than conventional NiTi (F6 SkyTaper) (P > .05); instead CM files (manufacturing by grinding or EDM process) recorded lower maximum torque load (P < .05) but significantly higher angular rotation (P < .0001) to fracture than M-wire for both instruments size #25, 0.06 taper and size #25, 0.08 taper (Hyflex EDM OneFile/WaveOne Primary; Hyflex CM/ProTaper Next X2). Conventional (F6 SkyTaper) NiTi files showed same torque load (P > .05) but significantly higher angular rotation (P < .05) to fracture than M-wire instruments size #25, 0.06 taper (ProTaper Next). Hyflex EDM One-File and Hyflex CM have same torque load and angular rotation to fracture than F6 SkyTaper due to the higher flexibility and cross-sectional area of CM files tested than conventional NiTi one. Moreover CM files showed lower torque load and higher angular rotation to fracture than M-wire instruments due to the flexibility of CM alloy. M-wire instruments showed same torque load but significantly lower angular rotation than conventional NiTi files due to the same flexibility and higher cross-sectional area of the files tested.
|Titolo:||Influence of heat-treatment on torsional resistance to fracture of nickel-titanium endodontic instruments.|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2016|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|