Molecular interactions between gemcitabine, alone or conjugated with squalene to form the gem-squalene prodrug, with dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine have been investigated by differential scanning calorimetry and Langmuir film balance techniques to gain information about the interaction of gemcitabine and its prodrug with mammalian cell membranes and to evaluate the potential of liposomes as a delivery system for gemcitabine prodrugs. Phospholipids assembled as multilamellar vesicles or monolayers (at the air water interface) have been used as biomembrane models. Different interactions of gemcitabine, its prodrug, and squalene with the lipid were detected by dispersing the compounds in the MLV and were compared with kinetic experiments carried out to consider the ability of the examined compounds to dissolve in an aqueous medium, to migrate through it, and to be captured by multilamellar vesicles. Their ability to be released from drug-loaded liposomes and be taken up by empty vesicles mimicking biomembranes was also considered. Analysis of the differential scanning calorimetry curves reveals that gemcitabine has very little interaction with multilamellar vesicles whereas the gem-squalene prodrug strongly interacts with multilamellar vesicles. The kinetic experiments suggest that an aqueous medium does not permit the prodrug uptake by the biomembrane models, whereas it is allowed when gem-squalene is gradually released by the liposomes. The molecular area/surface pressure isotherms of the gemcitabine/lipid, gem-squalene/lipid, and pure compound monolayers, in agreement with the calorimetric results, indicate that gem-squalene interacts with the phospholipid monolayer with the squalene moiety in contact with the phospholipid chains and gemcitabine protruding in the aqueous medium. (C) 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
|Titolo:||Enhancement of gemcitabine affinity for biomembranes by conjugation with squalene: differential scanning calorimetry and Langmuir-Blodgett studies using biomembrane models|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2007|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|