Abstract: Nitrite (NO2-), N-G-hydroxy-L-arginine (NOHA), and hydroxylamine (NH2OH) are products of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity and can also be formed by secondary reactions of nitric oxide (NO). These compounds are commonly considered to be rather stable and as such to be dosimeters of NO biosynthesis. However, each can be converted via metal-catalyzed reactions into either NO or other reactive nitrogen oxide species (RNOS), such as nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and nitroxyl (HNO), which have biologic activities distinct from those of the parent molecules. Consequently, certain aspects of tissue regulation controlled by RNOS may be dictated to a significant extent by metal-dependent reactions, thereby offering unique advantages for cellular and tissue regulation. For instance, because many metal-catalyzed reactions depend on the redox and oxygen status of the cellular environment, such reactions could serve as redox indicators. Formation of RNOS by metal-mediated pathways would confine the chemistry of these species to specific cellular sites. Additionally, such mechanisms would be independent both of NO and NOS, thus increasing the lifetime of RNOS that react with NO. Thus metal-mediated conversion of nitrite, NOHA, and NH2OH into biologically active agents may provide a unique signaling mechanism. In this review, we discuss the biochemistry of such reactions in the context of their pharmacologic and biologic implications.

The activation of metabolites of nitric oxide synthase by metals is both redox and oxygen dependent: a new feature of nitrogen oxide signaling

LAZZARINO, Giuseppe;
2006

Abstract

Abstract: Nitrite (NO2-), N-G-hydroxy-L-arginine (NOHA), and hydroxylamine (NH2OH) are products of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity and can also be formed by secondary reactions of nitric oxide (NO). These compounds are commonly considered to be rather stable and as such to be dosimeters of NO biosynthesis. However, each can be converted via metal-catalyzed reactions into either NO or other reactive nitrogen oxide species (RNOS), such as nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and nitroxyl (HNO), which have biologic activities distinct from those of the parent molecules. Consequently, certain aspects of tissue regulation controlled by RNOS may be dictated to a significant extent by metal-dependent reactions, thereby offering unique advantages for cellular and tissue regulation. For instance, because many metal-catalyzed reactions depend on the redox and oxygen status of the cellular environment, such reactions could serve as redox indicators. Formation of RNOS by metal-mediated pathways would confine the chemistry of these species to specific cellular sites. Additionally, such mechanisms would be independent both of NO and NOS, thus increasing the lifetime of RNOS that react with NO. Thus metal-mediated conversion of nitrite, NOHA, and NH2OH into biologically active agents may provide a unique signaling mechanism. In this review, we discuss the biochemistry of such reactions in the context of their pharmacologic and biologic implications.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11769/26672
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