High levels of amyloid-beta peptide (Aβ) have been related to Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis. However, in the healthy brain, low physiologically relevant concentrations of Aβ are necessary for long-term potentiation (LTP) and memory. Because cGMP plays a key role in these processes, here we investigated whether the cyclic nucleotide cGMP influences Aβ levels and function during LTP and memory. We demonstrate that the increase of cGMP levels by the phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors (PDE5-Is) sildenafil and vardenafil induces a parallel release of Aβ due to a change in the approximation of amyloid precursor protein (APP) and the β-site APP cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1). Moreover, electrophysiological and behavioral studies performed on animals of both sexes showed that blocking Aβ function - by using anti-murine Aβ antibodies or APP knock-out mice - prevents the cGMP-dependent enhancement of LTP and memory. Our data suggest that cGMP positively regulates Aβ levels in the healthy brain which, in turn, boosts synaptic plasticity and memory.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENTAmyloid-β (Aβ) is a key pathogenetic factor in Alzheimer's Disease. However, low concentrations of endogenous Aβ, mimicking levels of the peptide in the healthy brain, enhance hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) and memory. Because the second messenger cGMP exerts a central role in LTP mechanisms, here, we studied whether cGMP affects Aβ levels and function during LTP. We show that cGMP enhances Aβ production by increasing the APP/BACE-1 convergence in endo-lylosomal compartments. Moreover, the cGMP-induced enhancement of LTP and memory was disrupted by blockade of Aβ, suggesting that the physiological effect of the cyclic nucleotide on LTP and memory is dependent upon Aβ.
|Titolo:||Amyloid-beta peptide is needed for cGMP-induced long-term potentiation and memory|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2017|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|
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