The assessment of pesticides compatibility with natural enemies is recommended before including agrochemicals in integrated and organic pest management schemes. The lethal and sublethal effects of a mineral oil and a juvenile hormone mimic (pyriproxyfen), on adults and larvae of Aphytis melinus, a key ectoparasitoid of armored scale insect pests of citrus, such as Aonidiella aurantii, were evaluated. Mineral oil caused very high mortality on the adults, while a lower acute toxicity was recorded on young instars. No significant effects on their reproduction capacity and on the sex-ratio of the progeny were observed. Pyriproxyfen had neither lethal nor sublethal effects (in terms of survived female fertility) on A. melinus adults. However, parasitoid larvae exposed to this insecticide suffered strong acute toxicity and fertility reduction (progeny number and proportion of female progeny). When adults were offered the choice to parasitize treated and untreated scales they significantly preferred the control ones, and when they were exposed to only treated scaled the parasitism rate was significantly lower only with mineral oil-treated hosts. The significant differences in the susceptibility of the two parasitoid instars highlight the importance of including this aspect in pesticide risk assessment procedures and in the choice of the pesticide and of the treatment timing in the field. Overall, the results indicate potential for integrating A. melinus, both naturally present and artificially released, and these insecticides only by appropriate timing of insecticide spraying and parasitoid releases.

Life stage-dependent susceptibility of Aphytis melinus DeBach (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) to two pesticides commonly used in citrus orchards

BIONDI, ANTONIO;SISCARO, Gaetano;ZAPPALA', LUCIA
2015-01-01

Abstract

The assessment of pesticides compatibility with natural enemies is recommended before including agrochemicals in integrated and organic pest management schemes. The lethal and sublethal effects of a mineral oil and a juvenile hormone mimic (pyriproxyfen), on adults and larvae of Aphytis melinus, a key ectoparasitoid of armored scale insect pests of citrus, such as Aonidiella aurantii, were evaluated. Mineral oil caused very high mortality on the adults, while a lower acute toxicity was recorded on young instars. No significant effects on their reproduction capacity and on the sex-ratio of the progeny were observed. Pyriproxyfen had neither lethal nor sublethal effects (in terms of survived female fertility) on A. melinus adults. However, parasitoid larvae exposed to this insecticide suffered strong acute toxicity and fertility reduction (progeny number and proportion of female progeny). When adults were offered the choice to parasitize treated and untreated scales they significantly preferred the control ones, and when they were exposed to only treated scaled the parasitism rate was significantly lower only with mineral oil-treated hosts. The significant differences in the susceptibility of the two parasitoid instars highlight the importance of including this aspect in pesticide risk assessment procedures and in the choice of the pesticide and of the treatment timing in the field. Overall, the results indicate potential for integrating A. melinus, both naturally present and artificially released, and these insecticides only by appropriate timing of insecticide spraying and parasitoid releases.
2015
Ecotoxicology, Parasitoid, Scale insects, Mineral oil, Pyriproxyfen, Sublethal effects
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11769/31612
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