Functional response describes the number of prey or hosts attacked by a predator or parasitoid as a function of prey or host density. Using three different experimental designs, we found a linear functional response by two insect parasitoids (the pteromalid Pachycrepoideus vindemiae and the diapriid Trichopria drosophilae) to their hosts (the drosophilids Drosophila suzukii and D. melanogaster). A linear function response is considered unusual for insect parasitoids. The first design was a âfixed time within patch experimentâ where individual parasitoids were exposed to a range of host densities for 24 h; the second two designs were a âvariable time functional responseâ and a âselective functional responseâ experiments where individual parasitoids were presented with a range of host patches and allowed to freely select and explore only one patch (variable time) or forage for 24 h (selective). In all experimental designs, the number of hosts parasitized increased linearly until reaching an upper limit. Under the laboratory conditions used, the functional response of P. vindemiae was limited by its egg supply and time (host handling time) whereas T. drosophilae was limited by time only. The linear functional response by both parasitoids likely resulted from a constant attack rate and an incremental foraging strategy where the parasitoids left a poor (low density) host patch or remained in a higher quality host patch when there was successful oviposition and adequate host density.
|Titolo:||Linear functional response by two pupal Drosophila parasitoids foraging within single or multiple patch environments|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2017|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|