In humans, low serum carnosinase (CN1) activity protects patients with type 2 diabetes from diabetic nephropathy. We now characterized the interaction of thiol-containing compounds with CN1 cysteine residue at position 102, which is important for CN1 activity. Reduced glutathione (GSH), N-acetylcysteine and cysteine (3.2 ± 0.4, 2.0 ± 0.3, 1.6 ± 0.2 µmol/mg/h/mM; p <.05) lowered dose-dependently recombinant CN1 (rCN1) efficiency (5.2 ± 0.2 µmol/mg/h/mM) and normalized increased CN1 activity renal tissue samples of diabetic mice. Inhibition was allosteric. Substitution of rCN1 cysteine residues at position 102 (Mut1C102S) and 229 (Mut2C229S) revealed that only cysteine-102 is influenced by cysteinylation. Molecular dynamic simulation confirmed a conformational rearrangement of negatively charged residues surrounding the zinc ions causing a partial shift of the carnosine ammonium head and resulting in a less effective pose of the substrate within the catalytic cavity and decreased activity. Cysteine-compounds influence the dynamic behaviour of CN1 and therefore present a promising option for the treatment of diabetes.

Allosteric inhibition of carnosinase (CN1) by inducing a conformational shift

Calabrese, Vittorio;
2017-01-01

Abstract

In humans, low serum carnosinase (CN1) activity protects patients with type 2 diabetes from diabetic nephropathy. We now characterized the interaction of thiol-containing compounds with CN1 cysteine residue at position 102, which is important for CN1 activity. Reduced glutathione (GSH), N-acetylcysteine and cysteine (3.2 ± 0.4, 2.0 ± 0.3, 1.6 ± 0.2 µmol/mg/h/mM; p <.05) lowered dose-dependently recombinant CN1 (rCN1) efficiency (5.2 ± 0.2 µmol/mg/h/mM) and normalized increased CN1 activity renal tissue samples of diabetic mice. Inhibition was allosteric. Substitution of rCN1 cysteine residues at position 102 (Mut1C102S) and 229 (Mut2C229S) revealed that only cysteine-102 is influenced by cysteinylation. Molecular dynamic simulation confirmed a conformational rearrangement of negatively charged residues surrounding the zinc ions causing a partial shift of the carnosine ammonium head and resulting in a less effective pose of the substrate within the catalytic cavity and decreased activity. Cysteine-compounds influence the dynamic behaviour of CN1 and therefore present a promising option for the treatment of diabetes.
2017
allosteric inhibition; Carnosinase 1 activity; CN1; diabetes; glutathione; N-acetylcysteine; Allosteric Regulation; Dipeptidases; Enzyme Inhibitors; Humans; Molecular Conformation; Molecular Dynamics Simulation; Sulfhydryl Compounds; Pharmacology; Drug Discovery3003 Pharmaceutical Science
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11769/316923
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