BACKGROUND: Bottom-up and top-down forces are major components of biological control against pests in an agro-ecosystem. Understanding the multi-trophic interactions between plants and secondary consumers would help optimize pest control strategies. We manipulated nitrogen and/or water inputs to tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum) to test whether these manipulations could trigger bottom-up effects on the parasitoid Necremnus tutae via host (Tuta absoluta) and/or non-host (Bemisia tabaci) exposures, and compared the control efficacy of N. tutae on T. absoluta in the presence and absence of B. tabaci. RESULTS: The results showed no cascading effects of plant nitrogen and/or water inputs on N. tutae via either host or non-host exposure. The bottom-up force was mitigated by chewing or sap-feeding insect consumers at the second energy level. By contrast, the top-down force on T. absoluta from parasitoids was enhanced by an additionally provided non-host, which could produce alternative food sources extending N. tutae longevity and enhancing the fitness of its offspring. CONCLUSION: Our results provided evidence for the combination of bottom-up and top-down approaches in tomato integrated pest management programs. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

Nitrogen and water inputs to tomato plant do not trigger bottom-up effects on a leafminer parasitoid through host and non-host exposures

Zappalà, Lucia
Membro del Collaboration Group
;
Biondi, Antonio
Writing – Review & Editing
;
2018-01-01

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Bottom-up and top-down forces are major components of biological control against pests in an agro-ecosystem. Understanding the multi-trophic interactions between plants and secondary consumers would help optimize pest control strategies. We manipulated nitrogen and/or water inputs to tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum) to test whether these manipulations could trigger bottom-up effects on the parasitoid Necremnus tutae via host (Tuta absoluta) and/or non-host (Bemisia tabaci) exposures, and compared the control efficacy of N. tutae on T. absoluta in the presence and absence of B. tabaci. RESULTS: The results showed no cascading effects of plant nitrogen and/or water inputs on N. tutae via either host or non-host exposure. The bottom-up force was mitigated by chewing or sap-feeding insect consumers at the second energy level. By contrast, the top-down force on T. absoluta from parasitoids was enhanced by an additionally provided non-host, which could produce alternative food sources extending N. tutae longevity and enhancing the fitness of its offspring. CONCLUSION: Our results provided evidence for the combination of bottom-up and top-down approaches in tomato integrated pest management programs. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.
2018
biological control; host-feeding; integrated pest management; Necremnus tutae; plant–herbivore interactions; Tuta absoluta; Agronomy and Crop Science; Insect Science
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11769/320292
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