BACKGROUND: Bottom-up and top-down forces are major components of biological control against pests in an agro-ecosystem. Understanding the multi-trophic interactions between plants and secondary consumers would help optimize pest control strategies. We manipulated nitrogen and/or water inputs to tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum) to test whether these manipulations could trigger bottom-up effects on the parasitoid Necremnus tutae via host (Tuta absoluta) and/or non-host (Bemisia tabaci) exposures, and compared the control efficacy of N. tutae on T. absoluta in the presence and absence of B. tabaci. RESULTS: The results showed no cascading effects of plant nitrogen and/or water inputs on N. tutae via either host or non-host exposure. The bottom-up force was mitigated by chewing or sap-feeding insect consumers at the second energy level. By contrast, the top-down force on T. absoluta from parasitoids was enhanced by an additionally provided non-host, which could produce alternative food sources extending N. tutae longevity and enhancing the fitness of its offspring. CONCLUSION: Our results provided evidence for the combination of bottom-up and top-down approaches in tomato integrated pest management programs. Â© 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.
|Titolo:||Nitrogen and water inputs to tomato plant do not trigger bottom-up effects on a leafminer parasitoid through host and non-host exposures|
ZAPPALA', LUCIA [Membro del Collaboration Group]
BIONDI, ANTONIO [Writing – Review & Editing]
|Data di pubblicazione:||2018|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|