The limited capacity of nervous system to promote a spontaneous regeneration and the high rate of neurodegenerative diseases appearance are keys factors that stimulate researches both for defining the molecular mechanisms of pathophysiology and for evaluating putative strategies to induce neural tissue regeneration. In this latter aspect, the application of stem cells seems to be a promising approach, even if the control of their differentiation and the maintaining of a safe state of proliferation should be troubled. Here, we focus on adipose tissue-derived stem cells and we seek out the recent advances on the promotion of their neural differentiation, performing a critical integration of the basic biology and physiology of adipose tissue-derived stem cells with the functional modifications that the biophysical, biomechanical and biochemical microenvironment induces to cell phenotype. The pre-clinical studies showed that the neural differentiation by cell stimulation with growth factors benefits from the integration with biomaterials and biophysical interaction like microgravity. All these elements have been reported as furnisher of microenvironments with desirable biological, physical and mechanical properties. A critical review of current knowledge is here proposed, underscoring that a real advance toward a stable, safe and controllable adipose stem cells clinical application will derive from a synergic multidisciplinary approach that involves material engineer, basic cell biology, cell and tissue physiology.

Physiologically based microenvironment for in vitro neural differentiation of adipose-derived stem cells

Graziano ACE
Primo
;
Avola Rosanna;Perciavalle Vincenzo;Cicala Gianluca;Coco Marinella;Cardile V
Ultimo
2018-01-01

Abstract

The limited capacity of nervous system to promote a spontaneous regeneration and the high rate of neurodegenerative diseases appearance are keys factors that stimulate researches both for defining the molecular mechanisms of pathophysiology and for evaluating putative strategies to induce neural tissue regeneration. In this latter aspect, the application of stem cells seems to be a promising approach, even if the control of their differentiation and the maintaining of a safe state of proliferation should be troubled. Here, we focus on adipose tissue-derived stem cells and we seek out the recent advances on the promotion of their neural differentiation, performing a critical integration of the basic biology and physiology of adipose tissue-derived stem cells with the functional modifications that the biophysical, biomechanical and biochemical microenvironment induces to cell phenotype. The pre-clinical studies showed that the neural differentiation by cell stimulation with growth factors benefits from the integration with biomaterials and biophysical interaction like microgravity. All these elements have been reported as furnisher of microenvironments with desirable biological, physical and mechanical properties. A critical review of current knowledge is here proposed, underscoring that a real advance toward a stable, safe and controllable adipose stem cells clinical application will derive from a synergic multidisciplinary approach that involves material engineer, basic cell biology, cell and tissue physiology.
2018
Adipose stem cells; Biomaterials; Neural differentiation; Neurodegeneration; Physiological microenvironmen
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11769/327729
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