Geographic forwarding is an emerging paradigm for communications between nodes in sensor networks. No exchange of location information is required, and nodes only have to know their own coordinates and those of the destination. Due to the device’s limited processing and storage capabilities, a simplified protocol architecture should be designed so as to make communications in these networks efficient and simple at the same time. Moreover, sensor nodes are battery supplied and, thus, protocol design should be aimed at reducing energy consumption in order to increase network lifetime. In this perspective, one sensor feature recently regarded as of key importance, is the ability to tune the transmission power. This allows the communication range to be varied according to node density and connectivity constraints. In this paper we propose an integrated cross-layer protocol, called MACRO, which integrates MAC and routing layer functionalities in order to support geographic forwarding in wireless sensor networks. In MACRO, a competition is triggered to select the best next relay node while forwarding information to the destination. The competition is based on the evaluation of a weighted progress factor representing the progress towards the destination per unit of transmission power. An analytical paradigm facilitating the most appropriate choice of the next relay is proposed. The proposed solution is assessed through both analysis and ns-2 simulations. Performance results show the advantages of the proposed solution when compared to other geographic forwarding protocols which do not exploit cross-layer features.

A MAC/Routing Cross-Layer Approach to Geographic Forwarding in Wireless Sensor Networks

GALLUCCIO, LAURA;MORABITO, Giacomo;PALAZZO, Sergio
2007

Abstract

Geographic forwarding is an emerging paradigm for communications between nodes in sensor networks. No exchange of location information is required, and nodes only have to know their own coordinates and those of the destination. Due to the device’s limited processing and storage capabilities, a simplified protocol architecture should be designed so as to make communications in these networks efficient and simple at the same time. Moreover, sensor nodes are battery supplied and, thus, protocol design should be aimed at reducing energy consumption in order to increase network lifetime. In this perspective, one sensor feature recently regarded as of key importance, is the ability to tune the transmission power. This allows the communication range to be varied according to node density and connectivity constraints. In this paper we propose an integrated cross-layer protocol, called MACRO, which integrates MAC and routing layer functionalities in order to support geographic forwarding in wireless sensor networks. In MACRO, a competition is triggered to select the best next relay node while forwarding information to the destination. The competition is based on the evaluation of a weighted progress factor representing the progress towards the destination per unit of transmission power. An analytical paradigm facilitating the most appropriate choice of the next relay is proposed. The proposed solution is assessed through both analysis and ns-2 simulations. Performance results show the advantages of the proposed solution when compared to other geographic forwarding protocols which do not exploit cross-layer features.
Geographic forwarding ; Cross-layering; Analysis
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11769/32840
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