In summary, 5HT, ACh, NE, E and DA appear to stimulate hypothalamic CRH secretion whereas activation of the GABA/BZD system seems to decrease the responsivity of the CRH neuron to stimulatory neurotransmitters (Fig. 6). Hypothalamic CRH released from the hypothalamic neuron not only activates the HPA axis, but also stimulates the locus coeruleus-norepinephrine system (LC) and the central sympathetic system (CSS). CRH also induces secretion of hypothalamic POMC gene-derived peptides, such as ACTH, beta-EP, alpha-MSH and CLIP. These peptides as well as CRH itself, decrease the responsivity of the CRH neuron to stimulatory inputs. In addition, glucocorticoids restrain the activity of both the CRH neuron and the locus coeruleus and may also inhibit the secretion of POMC gene-derived peptides by the POMC neurons of the arcuate nucleus. Hypothalamic CRH secretion is regulated also by a number of mediators of the immune response, such as IL-1, IL-2, TNF-alpha and PGF2 alpha, PAF and EGF. Although the physiologic significance of this regulation is largely unknown, it is tempting to speculate that cytokines and mediators of inflammation released in vivo may activate the HPA axis to trigger a glucocorticoid-mediated counter-regulatory mechanism to restrain the immune system (Fig. 7). (Formula: see text). Fig. 7. Schematic representation of the interactions between the HPA axis and the immune system. Continuous lines represent stimulatory inputs and interrupted lines represent inhibitory inputs. In conclusion, our in vitro hypothalamic organ culture system allowed us to examine the regulation of CRH secretion in a direct and specific manner. Some of our observations may help with better understanding of the role played by CRH in the complex symptomatology of stress. In making extrapolations and interpretations from the in vitro data, however, we should try to keep in mind the words of Claude Bernard, "... If we break up a living organism by isolating its different parts it is only for the sake of ease in analysis and by no means in order to consider them separately. Indeed when we wish to ascribe to a physiological quality its value and true significance we must always refer it to this whole and draw our final conclusions only in relation to the effects in the whole"
|Titolo:||Regulation of rat hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing hormone secretion in vitro: potential clinical implications|
|Data di pubblicazione:||1988|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|