The current study was performed to review the conducted studies regarding the concentration of radon 222 in the tap drinking water; furthermore, by estimation of ingestion and inhalation effective dose, the health risk assessment in the adults and children using MCS technique was assessed. All related studies published among January 1990 to October 2016; were screened in the available databases such as Web of Science, PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, SID, and Irandoc. The total effective dose was estimated by calculating Eing(Effective dose of ingestion) and Einh(Effective dose of inhalation) by Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) method. The range of ND ─ 40.9 Bq/L for radon 222 in water resources was proposed after evaluation of data collected from 13 studies with 1079 samples. The overall concentration of radon 222 in drinking water in Iran was 3.98: 95%CI (3.79 ─ 4.17 Bq/L). Also, the effective ingestion dose of radon 222 in adults age groups was 1.35 times higher than children. The rank order of drinking water resources based on the concentration of radon 222 was Spring > Spring and Well > Well > Spring and Qanat > Tap water. The overall concentration of radon 222 in drinking water in Iran was lower than WHO and EPA standard limits. Also, the rank order regarding area studied based on the concentration of radon 222 was Gillan > Mashhad > Mazandaran > Kerman > Yazd > Tehran > Kermanshah > Golestan > Hormozgan. The effective ingestion dose of radon 222 to consumers in the Gillan, Mashhad, Mazandaran, and Kerman were higher than WHO guidance (0.1 mSv/y). Also except consumers in the Hormozgan, inhalation effective dose radon 222, in the other investigated areas were higher than WHO guidance (0.1 mSv/y). Therefore, it is recommended to conduct the required programs regarding control and elimination of radon 222 concentration in Iranian drinking water supply.

Radon 222 in drinking water resources of Iran: A systematic review, meta-analysis and probabilistic risk assessment (Monte Carlo simulation)

Conti, Gea Oliveri
Writing – Original Draft Preparation
;
Ferrante, Margherita
Writing – Review & Editing
;
2018

Abstract

The current study was performed to review the conducted studies regarding the concentration of radon 222 in the tap drinking water; furthermore, by estimation of ingestion and inhalation effective dose, the health risk assessment in the adults and children using MCS technique was assessed. All related studies published among January 1990 to October 2016; were screened in the available databases such as Web of Science, PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, SID, and Irandoc. The total effective dose was estimated by calculating Eing(Effective dose of ingestion) and Einh(Effective dose of inhalation) by Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) method. The range of ND ─ 40.9 Bq/L for radon 222 in water resources was proposed after evaluation of data collected from 13 studies with 1079 samples. The overall concentration of radon 222 in drinking water in Iran was 3.98: 95%CI (3.79 ─ 4.17 Bq/L). Also, the effective ingestion dose of radon 222 in adults age groups was 1.35 times higher than children. The rank order of drinking water resources based on the concentration of radon 222 was Spring > Spring and Well > Well > Spring and Qanat > Tap water. The overall concentration of radon 222 in drinking water in Iran was lower than WHO and EPA standard limits. Also, the rank order regarding area studied based on the concentration of radon 222 was Gillan > Mashhad > Mazandaran > Kerman > Yazd > Tehran > Kermanshah > Golestan > Hormozgan. The effective ingestion dose of radon 222 to consumers in the Gillan, Mashhad, Mazandaran, and Kerman were higher than WHO guidance (0.1 mSv/y). Also except consumers in the Hormozgan, inhalation effective dose radon 222, in the other investigated areas were higher than WHO guidance (0.1 mSv/y). Therefore, it is recommended to conduct the required programs regarding control and elimination of radon 222 concentration in Iranian drinking water supply.
Drinking water; Effective dose; Monte Carlo simulation; Radioactive; Radon 222; Adult; Child; Drinking Water; Humans; Iran; Monte Carlo Method; Radon; Risk Assessment; United States; United States Environmental Protection Agency; Water Pollutants, Radioactive; World Health Organization; Food Science; Toxicology
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11769/357393
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