Background: Nanoscale surface modifications are widely touted to improve the biocompatibility of medically relevant materials. Immune cells, such as macrophages, play a critical role in the initial healing events following implantation. Methods: To understand the response of macrophages to nanotopography better, we exposed U937-derived macrophages to a distinctive mesoporous titanium surface (TiNano) produced by a process of simple chemical nanocavitation, and to mechanically polished titanium (TiPolished) and glass coverslip (Glass) surfaces as controls. Cell numbers and morphology were evaluated. Osteopontin expression and that of the proinflammatory SPARC protein and its stabilin 1 receptor were analyzed. Release of inflammation-associated cytokines and chemokines was also measured. Results: Compared to the two control surfaces, there were fewer U937 cells on TiNano, and these exhibited a more rounded morphology with long filopodia. The cells showed areas of punctate actin distribution, indicating formation of podosomes. Of the three proteins examined, only osteopontin’s immunofluorescence signal was clearly reduced. Irrespective of the substrate, the cytokine assay revealed important variations in expression levels of the multiple molecules analyzed and downregulation in a number of chemokines by the TiNano surface. Conclusion: These results indicate that macrophages sense and respond to the physicochemical cueing generated by the nanocavitated surface, triggering cellular and molecular changes consistent with lesser inflammatory propensity. Given the previously reported beneficial outcome of this mesoporous surface on osteogenic activity, it could be presumed that modulation of the macrophagic response it elicits may also contribute to initial bone-integration events.

Surface nanocavitation of titanium modulates macrophage activity

Isola, Gaetano
Writing – Original Draft Preparation
;
2018

Abstract

Background: Nanoscale surface modifications are widely touted to improve the biocompatibility of medically relevant materials. Immune cells, such as macrophages, play a critical role in the initial healing events following implantation. Methods: To understand the response of macrophages to nanotopography better, we exposed U937-derived macrophages to a distinctive mesoporous titanium surface (TiNano) produced by a process of simple chemical nanocavitation, and to mechanically polished titanium (TiPolished) and glass coverslip (Glass) surfaces as controls. Cell numbers and morphology were evaluated. Osteopontin expression and that of the proinflammatory SPARC protein and its stabilin 1 receptor were analyzed. Release of inflammation-associated cytokines and chemokines was also measured. Results: Compared to the two control surfaces, there were fewer U937 cells on TiNano, and these exhibited a more rounded morphology with long filopodia. The cells showed areas of punctate actin distribution, indicating formation of podosomes. Of the three proteins examined, only osteopontin’s immunofluorescence signal was clearly reduced. Irrespective of the substrate, the cytokine assay revealed important variations in expression levels of the multiple molecules analyzed and downregulation in a number of chemokines by the TiNano surface. Conclusion: These results indicate that macrophages sense and respond to the physicochemical cueing generated by the nanocavitated surface, triggering cellular and molecular changes consistent with lesser inflammatory propensity. Given the previously reported beneficial outcome of this mesoporous surface on osteogenic activity, it could be presumed that modulation of the macrophagic response it elicits may also contribute to initial bone-integration events.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11769/358410
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