Purpose: Anticancer drug delivery systems are often limited by hurdles, such as off-target distribution, slow cellular internalization, limited lysosomal escape, and drug resistance. To overcome these limitations, we have developed a stable nitric oxide (NO)-releasing nanoparticle (polystyrene-maleic acid [SMA]-tert-dodecane S-nitrosothiol [tDodSNO]) with the aim of enhancing the anticancer properties of doxorubicin (Dox) and a Dox-loaded nanoparticle (SMA-Dox) carrier. Materials and methods: Effects of SMA-tDodSNO and/or in combination with Dox or SMA-Dox on cell viability, apoptosis, mitochondrial membrane potential, lysosomal membrane permeability, tumor tissue, and tumor growth were studied using in vitro and in vivo model of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). In addition, the concentrations of SMA-Dox and Dox in combination with SMA-tDodSNO were measured in cells and tumor tissues. Results: Combination of SMA-tDodSNO and Dox synergistically decreased cell viability and induced apoptosis in 4T1 (TNBC cells). Incubation of 4T1 cells with SMA-tDodSNO (40 µM) significantly enhanced the cellular uptake of SMA-Dox and increased Dox concentration in the cells resulting in a twofold increase (P<0.001). Lysosomal membrane integrity, evaluated by acridine orange (AO) staining, was impaired by 40 µM SMA-tDodSNO (P<0.05 vs control) and when combined with SMA-Dox, this effect was significantly potentiated (P<0.001 vs SMA-Dox). Subcutaneous administration of SMA-tDodSNO (1 mg/kg) to xenografted mice bearing 4T1 cells showed that SMA-tDodSNO alone caused a twofold decrease in the tumor size compared to the control group. SMA-tDodSNO in combination with SMA-Dox resulted in a statistically significant 4.7-fold reduction in the tumor volume (P<0.001 vs control), without causing significant toxicity as monitored through body weight loss. Conclusion: Taken together, these results suggest that SMA-tDodSNO can be used as a successful strategy to increase the efficacy of Dox and SMA-Dox in a model of TNBC.
|Titolo:||Nitric oxide-releasing nanoparticles improve doxorubicin anticancer activity|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2018|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|