Purpose: Anticancer drug delivery systems are often limited by hurdles, such as off-target distribution, slow cellular internalization, limited lysosomal escape, and drug resistance. To overcome these limitations, we have developed a stable nitric oxide (NO)-releasing nanoparticle (polystyrene-maleic acid [SMA]-tert-dodecane S-nitrosothiol [tDodSNO]) with the aim of enhancing the anticancer properties of doxorubicin (Dox) and a Dox-loaded nanoparticle (SMA-Dox) carrier. Materials and methods: Effects of SMA-tDodSNO and/or in combination with Dox or SMA-Dox on cell viability, apoptosis, mitochondrial membrane potential, lysosomal membrane permeability, tumor tissue, and tumor growth were studied using in vitro and in vivo model of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). In addition, the concentrations of SMA-Dox and Dox in combination with SMA-tDodSNO were measured in cells and tumor tissues. Results: Combination of SMA-tDodSNO and Dox synergistically decreased cell viability and induced apoptosis in 4T1 (TNBC cells). Incubation of 4T1 cells with SMA-tDodSNO (40 µM) significantly enhanced the cellular uptake of SMA-Dox and increased Dox concentration in the cells resulting in a twofold increase (P<0.001). Lysosomal membrane integrity, evaluated by acridine orange (AO) staining, was impaired by 40 µM SMA-tDodSNO (P<0.05 vs control) and when combined with SMA-Dox, this effect was significantly potentiated (P<0.001 vs SMA-Dox). Subcutaneous administration of SMA-tDodSNO (1 mg/kg) to xenografted mice bearing 4T1 cells showed that SMA-tDodSNO alone caused a twofold decrease in the tumor size compared to the control group. SMA-tDodSNO in combination with SMA-Dox resulted in a statistically significant 4.7-fold reduction in the tumor volume (P<0.001 vs control), without causing significant toxicity as monitored through body weight loss. Conclusion: Taken together, these results suggest that SMA-tDodSNO can be used as a successful strategy to increase the efficacy of Dox and SMA-Dox in a model of TNBC.

Nitric oxide-releasing nanoparticles improve doxorubicin anticancer activity

Pittalà, Valeria
2018

Abstract

Purpose: Anticancer drug delivery systems are often limited by hurdles, such as off-target distribution, slow cellular internalization, limited lysosomal escape, and drug resistance. To overcome these limitations, we have developed a stable nitric oxide (NO)-releasing nanoparticle (polystyrene-maleic acid [SMA]-tert-dodecane S-nitrosothiol [tDodSNO]) with the aim of enhancing the anticancer properties of doxorubicin (Dox) and a Dox-loaded nanoparticle (SMA-Dox) carrier. Materials and methods: Effects of SMA-tDodSNO and/or in combination with Dox or SMA-Dox on cell viability, apoptosis, mitochondrial membrane potential, lysosomal membrane permeability, tumor tissue, and tumor growth were studied using in vitro and in vivo model of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). In addition, the concentrations of SMA-Dox and Dox in combination with SMA-tDodSNO were measured in cells and tumor tissues. Results: Combination of SMA-tDodSNO and Dox synergistically decreased cell viability and induced apoptosis in 4T1 (TNBC cells). Incubation of 4T1 cells with SMA-tDodSNO (40 µM) significantly enhanced the cellular uptake of SMA-Dox and increased Dox concentration in the cells resulting in a twofold increase (P<0.001). Lysosomal membrane integrity, evaluated by acridine orange (AO) staining, was impaired by 40 µM SMA-tDodSNO (P<0.05 vs control) and when combined with SMA-Dox, this effect was significantly potentiated (P<0.001 vs SMA-Dox). Subcutaneous administration of SMA-tDodSNO (1 mg/kg) to xenografted mice bearing 4T1 cells showed that SMA-tDodSNO alone caused a twofold decrease in the tumor size compared to the control group. SMA-tDodSNO in combination with SMA-Dox resulted in a statistically significant 4.7-fold reduction in the tumor volume (P<0.001 vs control), without causing significant toxicity as monitored through body weight loss. Conclusion: Taken together, these results suggest that SMA-tDodSNO can be used as a successful strategy to increase the efficacy of Dox and SMA-Dox in a model of TNBC.
Biologic barriers; Doxorubicin; Nanoparticles; Nitric oxide; SMA-tDodSNO; Synergistic cytotoxicity; Animals; Antineoplastic Agents; Apoptosis; Cell Cycle; Cell Line, Tumor; Cell Proliferation; Cell Survival; Doxorubicin; Endocytosis; Female; Humans; Injections, Subcutaneous; Lysosomes; Maleates; Mice, Inbred BALB C; Mitochondria; Nanoparticles; Nitric Oxide; Permeability; Polystyrenes; S-Nitrosothiols; Triple Negative Breast Neoplasms; Drug Liberation; Biophysics; Bioengineering; Biomaterials; 3003; Drug Discovery3003 Pharmaceutical Science; Organic Chemistry
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11769/359788
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