Catheter venography has been considered to be the "gold standard" in the evaluation of venous occlusive disease. Venography provides valuable information regarding stenotic areas, flow patterns, reflux, and the presence of collaterals. Many attempts have been made to evaluate the cerebral outflow and patients who may benefit from a treatment of internal jugular vein stenosis. The evidence that emptying time of contrast medium may correlate with stenotic segments gave a new chance for studies evaluating the venous outflow. The increased prevalence of extra-cranial venous flow anomalies has encouraged the use of angioplasty to treat the internal jugular vein (IJV) stenosis, with the aim of producing a clinical benefit. The need for careful evaluation of cerebral venous outflow was also driven by the increasing demand for the evaluation of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) success both hemodynamic and clinical. In recent years there has been considerable interest in the use of PTA of the IJV to treat chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency. The present review provides a brief overview on the main techniques for the evaluation of cerebral venous outflow.
|Titolo:||Catheter venous angiography for the evaluation of cerebral venous outflow|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2018|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|
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