In physiological conditions, different types of macrophages can be found within the central nervous system (CNS), i.e., microglia, meningeal macrophages, and perivascular (blood-brain barrier) and choroid plexus (blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier) macrophages. Microglia and tissue-resident macrophages, as well as blood-borne monocytes, have different origins, as the former derive from yolk sac erythromyeloid precursors and the latter from the fetal liver or bone marrow. Accordingly, specific phenotypic patterns characterize each population. These cells function to maintain homeostasis and are directly involved in the development and resolution of neuroinflammatory processes. Also, following inflammation, circulating monocytes can be recruited and enter the CNS, therefore contributing to brain pathology. These cell populations have now been identified as key players in CNS pathology, including autoimmune diseases, such as multiple sclerosis, and degenerative diseases, such as Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Alzheimer’s disease. Here, we review the evidence on the involvement of CNS macrophages in neuroinflammation and the advantages, pitfalls, and translational opportunities of pharmacological interventions targeting these heterogeneous cellular populations for the treatment of brain diseases.

The role of macrophages in neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative pathways of alzheimer’s disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and multiple sclerosis: Pathogenetic cellular effectors and potential therapeutic targets

Mammana, Santa;Fagone, Paolo;Cavalli, Eugenio;Basile, Maria Sofia;Petralia, Maria Cristina;Nicoletti, Ferdinando;Mazzon, Emanuela
2018

Abstract

In physiological conditions, different types of macrophages can be found within the central nervous system (CNS), i.e., microglia, meningeal macrophages, and perivascular (blood-brain barrier) and choroid plexus (blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier) macrophages. Microglia and tissue-resident macrophages, as well as blood-borne monocytes, have different origins, as the former derive from yolk sac erythromyeloid precursors and the latter from the fetal liver or bone marrow. Accordingly, specific phenotypic patterns characterize each population. These cells function to maintain homeostasis and are directly involved in the development and resolution of neuroinflammatory processes. Also, following inflammation, circulating monocytes can be recruited and enter the CNS, therefore contributing to brain pathology. These cell populations have now been identified as key players in CNS pathology, including autoimmune diseases, such as multiple sclerosis, and degenerative diseases, such as Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Alzheimer’s disease. Here, we review the evidence on the involvement of CNS macrophages in neuroinflammation and the advantages, pitfalls, and translational opportunities of pharmacological interventions targeting these heterogeneous cellular populations for the treatment of brain diseases.
Alzheimer’s disease; Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis; Macrophages; Microglia; Multiple sclerosis; Neuroinflammation; Alzheimer Disease; Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis; Animals; Central Nervous System; Humans; Macrophages; Molecular Targeted Therapy; Multiple Sclerosis; Catalysis; Molecular Biology; Spectroscopy; Computer Science Applications1707 Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition; Physical and Theoretical Chemistry; Organic Chemistry; Inorganic Chemistry
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11769/361737
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