Thyroid cancer (TC) is the most common endocrine tumor. Although the majority of TCs show good prognoses, a minor proportion are aggressive and refractory to conventional therapies. So far, the molecular mechanisms underlying TC pathogenesis are incompletely understood. Evidence suggests that TC cells and their precursors are responsive to insulin and insulin-like growth factors (IGFs), and often overexpress receptors for insulin (IR) and IGF-1 (IGF-1R). IR exists in two isoforms, namely IR-A and IR-B. The first binds insulin and IGF-2, unlike IR-B, which only binds insulin. IR-A is preferentially expressed in prenatal life and contributes to development through IGF-2 action. Aggressive TC overexpresses IR-A, IGF-2, and IGF-1R. The over-activation of IR-A/IGF-2 loop in TC is associated with stem-like features and refractoriness to some targeted therapies. Importantly, both IR isoforms crosstalk with IGF-1R, giving rise to the formation of hybrids receptors (HR-A or HR-B). Other interactions have been demonstrated with other molecules such as the non-integrin collagen receptor, discoidin domain receptor 1 (DDR1), and the receptor for the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), Met. These functional networks provide mechanisms for IR signaling diversification, which may also exert a role in TC stem cell biology, thereby contributing to TC initiation and progression. This review focuses on the molecular mechanisms by which deregulated IR isoforms and their crosstalk with other molecules and signaling pathways in TC cells and their precursors may contribute to thyroid carcinogenesis, progression, and resistance to conventional treatments. We also highlight how targeting these alterations starting from TC progenitors cells may represent new therapeutic strategies to improve the clinical management of advanced TCs.
|Titolo:||The emerging role of insulin receptor isoforms in thyroid cancer: Clinical implications and new perspectives|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2018|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|
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