The insulin receptor (IR) mediates both metabolic and mitogenic effects especially when overexpressed or in clinical conditions with compensatory hyperinsulinemia, due to the metabolic pathway resistance, as obesity diabetes. In many cancers, IR is overexpressed preferentially as IR-A isoform, derived by alternative splicing of exon 11. The IR-A overexpression, and the increased IR-A:IR-B ratio, are mechanisms that promote the mitogenic response of cancer cells to insulin and IGF-2, which is produced locally by both epithelial and stromal cancer cells. In cancer IR-A, isoform predominance may occur for dysregulation at both mRNA transcription and post-transcription levels, including splicing factors, non-coding RNAs and protein degradation. The mechanisms that regulate IR isoform expression are complex and not fully understood. The IR isoform overexpression may play a role in cancer cell stemness, in tumor progression and in resistance to target therapies. From a clinical point of view, the IR-A overexpression in cancer may be a determinant factor for the resistance to IGF-1R target therapies for this issue. IR isoform expression in cancers may have the meaning of a predictive biomarker and co-targeting IGF-1R and IR-A may represent a new more efficacious treatment strategy.
|Titolo:||Insulin receptor isoforms in cancer|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2018|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|