The Mediterranean diet (MD)-the dietary pattern usually consumed by Mediterranean populations-can help promote a favorable health status and better quality of life. Uncovering the main factors associated with the adherence to MD may be useful in understanding and counteracting the global shift toward a Western diet, which has been documented also in the Mediterranean region. Here, we evaluated the adherence to MD and its major social and behavioral determinants in women from Catania, Southern Italy. This cross-sectional study included 841 women, aged 25-64 years, with no history of severe diseases. Adherence to MD was assessed by the Food Frequency Questionnaire and Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS). Associations between variables were tested by multivariable logistic regression analysis and expressed as an odds ratio (OR) with a 95% confidence interval (CI). Among social factors, medium and high educational levels were associated with an ideal intake of alcohol (OR = 4.059; 95%CI = 1.311-12.570; p = 0.015; OR = 4.258 95%CI = 1.068-16.976; p = 0.040; respectively), living in a couple with ideal intake of cereals (OR = 2.801 95%CI = 1.188-6.602; p = 0.018), and having children with an ideal intake of fruits (OR = 3.149; 95%CI = 1.245-7.762; p = 0.015). With respect to behaviors, current smoking was negatively associated with an ideal intake of meat (OR = 0.449; 95%CI = 0.0220-0.917; p = 0.028), while more engagement in physical activity was associated with an ideal intake of vegetables (OR = 6.148; 95%CI = 1.506-25.104; p = 0.011) and legumes (OR = 5.832; 95%CI = 1.414-24.063; p = 0.015). In line with these findings, moderately or highly physically active women were more likely to show medium or high adherence to MD than those who performed less physical activity (OR = 6.024; 95%CI = 1.192-30.440; p = 0.040; OR = 9.965 95%CI = 1.683-58.993; p = 0.011; respectively). Our results confirm an urgent need for public health strategies, which should take into account determinants of diet quality. Particularly, our study indicates that more engagement in physical activity is a major positive determinant of the adherence to MD.

Determinants of Adherence to the Mediterranean Diet: Findings from a Cross-Sectional Study in Women from Southern Italy

Maugeri, Andrea;Barchitta, Martina;Fiore, Valerio;ROSTA, GIULIANA;Favara, Giuliana;La Mastra, Claudia;La Rosa, Maria Clara;Magnano San Lio, Roberta;Agodi, Antonella
2019

Abstract

The Mediterranean diet (MD)-the dietary pattern usually consumed by Mediterranean populations-can help promote a favorable health status and better quality of life. Uncovering the main factors associated with the adherence to MD may be useful in understanding and counteracting the global shift toward a Western diet, which has been documented also in the Mediterranean region. Here, we evaluated the adherence to MD and its major social and behavioral determinants in women from Catania, Southern Italy. This cross-sectional study included 841 women, aged 25-64 years, with no history of severe diseases. Adherence to MD was assessed by the Food Frequency Questionnaire and Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS). Associations between variables were tested by multivariable logistic regression analysis and expressed as an odds ratio (OR) with a 95% confidence interval (CI). Among social factors, medium and high educational levels were associated with an ideal intake of alcohol (OR = 4.059; 95%CI = 1.311-12.570; p = 0.015; OR = 4.258 95%CI = 1.068-16.976; p = 0.040; respectively), living in a couple with ideal intake of cereals (OR = 2.801 95%CI = 1.188-6.602; p = 0.018), and having children with an ideal intake of fruits (OR = 3.149; 95%CI = 1.245-7.762; p = 0.015). With respect to behaviors, current smoking was negatively associated with an ideal intake of meat (OR = 0.449; 95%CI = 0.0220-0.917; p = 0.028), while more engagement in physical activity was associated with an ideal intake of vegetables (OR = 6.148; 95%CI = 1.506-25.104; p = 0.011) and legumes (OR = 5.832; 95%CI = 1.414-24.063; p = 0.015). In line with these findings, moderately or highly physically active women were more likely to show medium or high adherence to MD than those who performed less physical activity (OR = 6.024; 95%CI = 1.192-30.440; p = 0.040; OR = 9.965 95%CI = 1.683-58.993; p = 0.011; respectively). Our results confirm an urgent need for public health strategies, which should take into account determinants of diet quality. Particularly, our study indicates that more engagement in physical activity is a major positive determinant of the adherence to MD.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11769/368619
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