Inflammation represents a key feature and hallmark of tumor microenvironment playing a major role in the interaction with mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) in cancer progression. The aim of the present study was to investigate the crosstalk between MSCs and myeloma cells (MM) in the pro-inflammatory microenvironment promoting immune evasion and tumor growth. MSC were collected from patients with diagnosis of MGUS (n = 10), smoldering myeloma (n = 7), multiple myeloma at diagnosis (n = 16), relapse (n = 5) or refractory (n = 3), and from age-matched healthy controls (HC, n = 10) and cultured with peripheral blood mononucleated cells (PBMC) from healthy volunteer donors. Similarly to MM, we showed that MSC from smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM) patients activated neutrophils and conferred an immunosuppressive and pro-angiogenic phenotype. Furthermore, co-cultures of plasma cells (PC) and HC-MSC suggested that such activation is driven by MM cells through the switching into a pro-inflammatory phenotype mediated by toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). These results were further confirmed using a zebrafish as an immunocompetent in vivo model, showing the role of MM-MSC in supporting PCs engraftment and Th2 response. Such effect was abolished following inhibition of TLR4 signaling in MM-MSC before co-injection with PC. Moreover, the addition of a TLR4 inhibitor in the co-culture of HC-MSC with MM cells prevented the activation of the pro-tumor activity in PC-educated MSC. In conclusion, our study provides evidence that TLR4 signaling plays a key role in MSC transformation by inducing a pro-tumor phenotype associated with a permissive microenvironment allowing immune escape and tumor growth.

TLR4 signaling drives mesenchymal stromal cells commitment to promote tumor microenvironment transformation in multiple myeloma

Giallongo C.;Tibullo D.
;
Romano A.;Barbato A.;Lupo G.;Anfuso C. D.;Li Volti G.
;
Palumbo G. A.;Di Raimondo F.
2019

Abstract

Inflammation represents a key feature and hallmark of tumor microenvironment playing a major role in the interaction with mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) in cancer progression. The aim of the present study was to investigate the crosstalk between MSCs and myeloma cells (MM) in the pro-inflammatory microenvironment promoting immune evasion and tumor growth. MSC were collected from patients with diagnosis of MGUS (n = 10), smoldering myeloma (n = 7), multiple myeloma at diagnosis (n = 16), relapse (n = 5) or refractory (n = 3), and from age-matched healthy controls (HC, n = 10) and cultured with peripheral blood mononucleated cells (PBMC) from healthy volunteer donors. Similarly to MM, we showed that MSC from smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM) patients activated neutrophils and conferred an immunosuppressive and pro-angiogenic phenotype. Furthermore, co-cultures of plasma cells (PC) and HC-MSC suggested that such activation is driven by MM cells through the switching into a pro-inflammatory phenotype mediated by toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). These results were further confirmed using a zebrafish as an immunocompetent in vivo model, showing the role of MM-MSC in supporting PCs engraftment and Th2 response. Such effect was abolished following inhibition of TLR4 signaling in MM-MSC before co-injection with PC. Moreover, the addition of a TLR4 inhibitor in the co-culture of HC-MSC with MM cells prevented the activation of the pro-tumor activity in PC-educated MSC. In conclusion, our study provides evidence that TLR4 signaling plays a key role in MSC transformation by inducing a pro-tumor phenotype associated with a permissive microenvironment allowing immune escape and tumor growth.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11769/370397
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