The clinical course of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is characterized by possible development of both liver and extrahepatic disorders. The tropism of HCV for the lymphoid tissue is responsible for several immune-mediated disorders; a poly-oligoclonal B-lymphocyte expansion, commonly observed in a high proportion of patients with HCV infection, are responsible for the production of different autoantibodies and immune-complexes, such as mixed cryoglobulins. These serological alterations may characterize a variety of autoimmune or neoplastic diseases. Cryoglobulinemic vasculitis due to small-vessel deposition of circulating mixed cryoglobulins is the prototype of HCV-driven immune-mediated and lymphoproliferative disorders; interestingly, in some cases the disease may evolve to frank malignant lymphoma. In addition, HCV shows an oncogenic potential as suggested by several clinicoepidemiological and laboratory studies; in addition to hepatocellular carcinoma that represents the most frequent HCV-related malignancy, a causative role of HCV has been largely demonstrated in a significant percentage of patients with isolated B-cells non- Hodgkin's lymphomas. The same virus may be also involved in the pathogenesis of papillary thyroid cancer, a rare neoplastic condition that may complicate HCVrelated thyroid involvement. Patients with HCV infection are frequently asymptomatic or may develop only hepatic alteration, while a limited but clinically relevant number can develop one or more autoimmune and/or neoplastic disorders. Given the large variability of their prevalence among patients' populations from different countries, it is possible to hypothesize a potential role of other co-factors, i.e. , genetic and/or environmental, in the pathogenesis of HCV-related extra-hepatic diseases.
|Titolo:||Hepatitis C virus syndrome: A constellation of organ- and non-organ specific autoimmune disorders, B-cell non- Hodgkin's lymphoma, and cancer|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2015|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|