Feeding is a process controlled by a complex of associations between external and internal stimuli. The processes that involve learning and memory seem to exert a strong control over appetite and food intake, which is modulated by a gastrointestinal hormone, Ghrelin (Ghre). Recent studies claim that Ghre is involved in cognitive and neurobiological mechanisms that underlie the conditioning of eating behaviors. The expression of Ghre increases in anticipation of food intake based on learned behaviors. The hippocampal Ghre-containing neurons neurologically influence the orexigenic hypothalamus and consequently the learned feeding behavior. The CA1 field of Ammon's horn of the hippocampus (H-CA1) constitutes the most important neural substrate to control both appetitive and ingestive behavior. It also innervates amygdala regions that in turn innervate the hypothalamus. A recent study also implies that Ghre effects on cue-potentiated feeding behavior occur, at the least, via indirect action on the amygdala. In the present study, we investigate the neural substrates through which endogenous Ghre communicates conditioned appetite and feeding behavior within the CNS. We show the existence of a neural Ghre dependent pathway whereby peripherally-derived Ghre activates H-CA1 neurons, which in turn activate Ghre-expressing hypothalamic and amygdaloid neurons to stimulate appetite and feeding behavior. To highlight this pathway, we use two fluorescent retrograde tracers (Fluoro Gold and Dil) and immunohistochemical detection of Ghre expression in the hippocampus. Triple fluorescent-labeling has determined the presence of H-CA1 Ghre-containing collateralized neurons that project to the hypothalamus and amygdala monosynaptically. We hypothesize that H-Ghre-containing neurons in H-CA1 modulate food-intake behavior through direct pathways to the arcuate hypothalamic nucleus and medial amygdaloid nucleus.
|Titolo:||Hippocampal Ghrelin-positive neurons directly project to arcuate hypothalamic and medial amygdaloid nuclei. Could they modulate food-intake?|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2017|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|