Gut microbiota consists of over 100 trillion microorganisms including at least 1000 different species of bacteria and is crucially involved in physiological and pathophysiological processes occurring in the host. An imbalanced gastrointestinal ecosystem (dysbiosis) seems to be a contributor to the development and maintenance of several diseases, such as Alzheimer’s disease, depression, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Interestingly, the three disorders are frequently associated as demonstrated by the high comorbidity rates. In this review, we introduce gut microbiota and its role in both normal and pathological processes; then, we discuss the importance of the gut-brain axis as well as the role of oxidative stress and inflammation as mediators of the pathological processes in which dysbiosis is involved. Specific sections pertain the role of the altered gut microbiota in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease, depression, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The therapeutic implications of microbiota manipulation are briefly discussed. Finally, a conclusion comments on the possible role of dysbiosis as a common pathogenetic contributor (via oxidative stress and inflammation) shared by the three disorders.

Gut microbiota in Alzheimer’s disease, depression, and type 2 diabetes mellitus: The role of oxidative stress

Di Mauro Maurizio;Di Mauro Marco;Luca Antonina
2019

Abstract

Gut microbiota consists of over 100 trillion microorganisms including at least 1000 different species of bacteria and is crucially involved in physiological and pathophysiological processes occurring in the host. An imbalanced gastrointestinal ecosystem (dysbiosis) seems to be a contributor to the development and maintenance of several diseases, such as Alzheimer’s disease, depression, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Interestingly, the three disorders are frequently associated as demonstrated by the high comorbidity rates. In this review, we introduce gut microbiota and its role in both normal and pathological processes; then, we discuss the importance of the gut-brain axis as well as the role of oxidative stress and inflammation as mediators of the pathological processes in which dysbiosis is involved. Specific sections pertain the role of the altered gut microbiota in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease, depression, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The therapeutic implications of microbiota manipulation are briefly discussed. Finally, a conclusion comments on the possible role of dysbiosis as a common pathogenetic contributor (via oxidative stress and inflammation) shared by the three disorders.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11769/373170
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