Given the good performances in terms of geometrical acceptance and energy resolution, calorimeters are the best suited detectors to measure high energy cosmic rays directly in space. However, in order to exploit this potential, the design of calorimeters must be carefully optimized to take into account all limitations related to space missions, due mainly to the mass of the experimental apparatus. CaloCube is a three years R&D project, approved and financed by INFN in 2014, aiming to optimize the design of a space-borne calorimeter by the use of a cubic, homogeneous and isotropic geometry. In order to maximize detector performances with respect to the total mass of the apparatus, comparative studies on different scintillating materials, different sizes of crystals and different spacings among them have been performed making use of Monte Carlo simulations. In parallel to this activity, several prototypes instrumented with CsI:Tl cubic crystals have been constructed and tested with particle beams (muons, electrons, protons and ions). Both simulations and prototypes showed that the CaloCube design leads to a good particle energy resolution (< 2% for electromagnetic showers, < 40% for hadronic showers) and a good effective geometric factor (> 3:5 m2 sr for electromagnetic showers, > 2:5 m2 sr for hadronic showers). Thanks to these performances, in 5 years of operation it would be possible to measure the ux of electrons+positrons up to some tens of TeV and the uxes of protons and nuclei up to some units of PeV/nucleon, hence extending these measurements by at least one order of magnitude in energy compared to the experiments currently operating in space.

CaloCube: A new concept calorimeter for the detection of high energy cosmic rays in space

Albergo S.;Auditore L.;Cappello G.;Lenzi P.;Mori N.;Sciuto A.;Tiberio A.;Tricomi A.;Trimarchi M.;
2019

Abstract

Given the good performances in terms of geometrical acceptance and energy resolution, calorimeters are the best suited detectors to measure high energy cosmic rays directly in space. However, in order to exploit this potential, the design of calorimeters must be carefully optimized to take into account all limitations related to space missions, due mainly to the mass of the experimental apparatus. CaloCube is a three years R&D project, approved and financed by INFN in 2014, aiming to optimize the design of a space-borne calorimeter by the use of a cubic, homogeneous and isotropic geometry. In order to maximize detector performances with respect to the total mass of the apparatus, comparative studies on different scintillating materials, different sizes of crystals and different spacings among them have been performed making use of Monte Carlo simulations. In parallel to this activity, several prototypes instrumented with CsI:Tl cubic crystals have been constructed and tested with particle beams (muons, electrons, protons and ions). Both simulations and prototypes showed that the CaloCube design leads to a good particle energy resolution (< 2% for electromagnetic showers, < 40% for hadronic showers) and a good effective geometric factor (> 3:5 m2 sr for electromagnetic showers, > 2:5 m2 sr for hadronic showers). Thanks to these performances, in 5 years of operation it would be possible to measure the ux of electrons+positrons up to some tens of TeV and the uxes of protons and nuclei up to some units of PeV/nucleon, hence extending these measurements by at least one order of magnitude in energy compared to the experiments currently operating in space.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11769/392006
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