A recent line of research has shown that infertile male patients produce cytogenetically abnormal spermatozoa, despite a normal somatic karyotype, as a result of an altered intra-testicular environment that affects negatively the mechanisms controlling chromosome segregation during cell division. The rate of aneuploid spermatozoa production is significantly higher in patients with abnormal sperm parameters compared with those of normozoospermic subjects or infertile patients with normal sperm parameters. All chromosomes are subject to aneuploidy, although at a different rate; the heterochromosomes are more often altered than are the autosomes. A negative correlation has been reported to exist between aneuploidy and the main sperm parameters, suggesting that greater testicular damage is associated with a greater chance of chromosome malsegregation events. Abnormally-shaped spermatozoa are more likely to have chromosome abnormalities, particularly those with an enlarged head. More studies are necessary, however, to evaluate whether other types of sperm head abnormalities are also associated with an abnormal sperm chromosome complement. The possibility of retrieving testicular or epididymal spermatozoa in patients with azoospermia and using them in assisted reproduction techniques has prompted the evaluation of their chromosomal status. Studies have shown that testicular and epididymal spermatozoa have a greater rate of aneuploidy compared with that of ejaculated spermatozoa. Some authors have also shown that patients with non-obstructive azoospermia have a significantly higher sperm aneuploidy rate compared with that of patients with obstructive azoospermia. Sperm aneuploidy seems to have a negative impact on assisted reproduction technique outcome. Although it does not affect the fertilization rate, an elevated sperm aneuploidy rate is associated with a greater rate of pregnancy failure. Nevertheless, some patients with elevated sperm aneuploidy rate can still achieve a pregnancy, but with an increased risk of generating an aneuploid offspring. Thus, sperm aneuploidy evaluation is recommended in infertile patients with abnormal semen parameters, particularly if they undergo IVF programmes.
|Titolo:||Sperm aneuploidy in infertile men|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2003|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|