Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a major cause of cancer death worldwide. CRC has poor prognosis and there is a crucial need for new diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers to avoid CRC-related deaths. CRC can be considered a sporadic disease in most cases (75%-80%), but it has been suggested that crosstalk between gene mutations (i.e., mutations of BRAF, KRAS, and p53 as well as microsatellite instability) and epigenetic alterations (i.e., DNA methylation of CpG island promoter regions) could play a pivotal role in cancer development. A number of studies have focused on molecular testing to guide targeted and conventional treatments for patients with CRC, sometimes with contrasting results. Some of the most useful innovations in the management of CRC include the possibility to detect the absence of KRAS, BRAF, NRAS and PIK3CA gene mutations with the subsequent choice to administer targeted adjuvant therapy with anti-epidermal growth factor receptor antibodies. Moreover, CRC patients can benefit from tests for microsatellite instability and for the detection of loss of heterozygosity of chromosome 18q that can be helpful in guiding therapeutic decisions as regards the administration of 5-FU. The aim of this review was to summarize the most recent evidence on the possible use of genetic or epigenetic biomarkers for diagnosis, prognosis and response to therapy in CRC patients.

Biomarkers in colorectal cancer: Current clinical utility and future perspectives

Vacante M.;Basile F.;Biondi A.
2018

Abstract

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a major cause of cancer death worldwide. CRC has poor prognosis and there is a crucial need for new diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers to avoid CRC-related deaths. CRC can be considered a sporadic disease in most cases (75%-80%), but it has been suggested that crosstalk between gene mutations (i.e., mutations of BRAF, KRAS, and p53 as well as microsatellite instability) and epigenetic alterations (i.e., DNA methylation of CpG island promoter regions) could play a pivotal role in cancer development. A number of studies have focused on molecular testing to guide targeted and conventional treatments for patients with CRC, sometimes with contrasting results. Some of the most useful innovations in the management of CRC include the possibility to detect the absence of KRAS, BRAF, NRAS and PIK3CA gene mutations with the subsequent choice to administer targeted adjuvant therapy with anti-epidermal growth factor receptor antibodies. Moreover, CRC patients can benefit from tests for microsatellite instability and for the detection of loss of heterozygosity of chromosome 18q that can be helpful in guiding therapeutic decisions as regards the administration of 5-FU. The aim of this review was to summarize the most recent evidence on the possible use of genetic or epigenetic biomarkers for diagnosis, prognosis and response to therapy in CRC patients.
Biomarkers; Colorectal cancer; DNA methylation; Epigenetics; Tumor markers
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11769/409908
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