Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a protein that acts as a cytokine-, enzyme-, endocrine- and chaperon-like molecule. It binds to the cell-surface receptor CD74 in association with CD44, which activates the downstream signal transduction pathway. In addition, MIF acts also as a noncognate ligand for C-X-C chemokine receptor type 2 (CXCR2), type 4 (CXCR4), and type 7 (CXCR7). Recently, D-dopachrome tautomerase (D-DT), a second member of the MIF superfamily, was identified. From a pharmacological and clinical point of view, the nonredundant biological properties of MIF and D-DT anticipate potential synergisms from their simultaneous inhibition. Here, we focus on the role of MIF and D-DT in human immune-inflammatory, autoimmune, and chronic respiratory diseases, providing an update on the progress made in the identification of specific small-molecule inhibitors of these proteins.

Role of MIF and D-DT in immune-inflammatory, autoimmune, and chronic respiratory diseases: from pathogenic factors to therapeutic targets

Fagone, Paolo;Nicoletti, Ferdinando
2019

Abstract

Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a protein that acts as a cytokine-, enzyme-, endocrine- and chaperon-like molecule. It binds to the cell-surface receptor CD74 in association with CD44, which activates the downstream signal transduction pathway. In addition, MIF acts also as a noncognate ligand for C-X-C chemokine receptor type 2 (CXCR2), type 4 (CXCR4), and type 7 (CXCR7). Recently, D-dopachrome tautomerase (D-DT), a second member of the MIF superfamily, was identified. From a pharmacological and clinical point of view, the nonredundant biological properties of MIF and D-DT anticipate potential synergisms from their simultaneous inhibition. Here, we focus on the role of MIF and D-DT in human immune-inflammatory, autoimmune, and chronic respiratory diseases, providing an update on the progress made in the identification of specific small-molecule inhibitors of these proteins.
File in questo prodotto:
Non ci sono file associati a questo prodotto.

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11769/422164
Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? 34
  • Scopus 50
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? ND
social impact