Multiple myeloma (MM) is a B-cell malignancy requiring inflammatory microenvironment signals for cell survival and proliferation. Despite improvements in pharmacological tools, MM remains incurable mainly because of drug resistance. The present study aimed to investigate the implication of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) as the potential mechanism of bortezomib (BTZ) resistance. We found that TLR4 activation induced mitochondrial biogenesis and increased mitochondrial mass in human MM cell lines. Moreover, TLR4 signaling was activated after BTZ exposure and was increased in BTZ-resistant U266 (U266-R) cells. A combination of BTZ with TAK-242, a selective TLR4 inhibitor, overcame drug resistance through the generation of higher and extended oxidative stress, strong mitochondrial depolarization and severe impairment of mitochondrial fitness which in turn caused cell energy crisis and activated mitophagy and apoptosis. We further confirmed the efficacy of a TAK-242/BTZ combination in plasma cells from refractory myeloma patients. Consistently, inhibition of TLR4 increased BTZ-induced mitochondrial depolarization, restoring pharmacological response. Taken together, these findings indicate that TLR4 signaling acts as a stress-responsive mechanism protecting mitochondria during BTZ exposure, sustaining mitochondrial metabolism and promoting drug resistance. Inhibition of TLR4 could be therefore be a possible target in patients with refractory MM to overcome BTZ resistance.

Inhibition of TLR4 signaling affects mitochondrial fitness and overcomes bortezomib resistance in myeloma plasma cells

Giallongo C.;Tibullo D.;Puglisi F.;Barbato A.;Vicario N.;Cambria D.;Parrinello N. L.;Romano A.;Conticello C.;Forte S.;Parenti R.;Amorini A. M.;Lazzarino G.;Li Volti G.;Palumbo G. A.;Di Raimondo F.
2020-01-01

Abstract

Multiple myeloma (MM) is a B-cell malignancy requiring inflammatory microenvironment signals for cell survival and proliferation. Despite improvements in pharmacological tools, MM remains incurable mainly because of drug resistance. The present study aimed to investigate the implication of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) as the potential mechanism of bortezomib (BTZ) resistance. We found that TLR4 activation induced mitochondrial biogenesis and increased mitochondrial mass in human MM cell lines. Moreover, TLR4 signaling was activated after BTZ exposure and was increased in BTZ-resistant U266 (U266-R) cells. A combination of BTZ with TAK-242, a selective TLR4 inhibitor, overcame drug resistance through the generation of higher and extended oxidative stress, strong mitochondrial depolarization and severe impairment of mitochondrial fitness which in turn caused cell energy crisis and activated mitophagy and apoptosis. We further confirmed the efficacy of a TAK-242/BTZ combination in plasma cells from refractory myeloma patients. Consistently, inhibition of TLR4 increased BTZ-induced mitochondrial depolarization, restoring pharmacological response. Taken together, these findings indicate that TLR4 signaling acts as a stress-responsive mechanism protecting mitochondria during BTZ exposure, sustaining mitochondrial metabolism and promoting drug resistance. Inhibition of TLR4 could be therefore be a possible target in patients with refractory MM to overcome BTZ resistance.
2020
Bortezomib resistance
Mitochondria
Myeloma
Refractory CD138+
TLR4
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11769/482970
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