BACKGROUND: Leishmaniasis is a parasitic disease affecting both animals and humans, acquired with the bite of sand flies or, in Injection Drug Users (IDUs), with contaminated needles, still hypoendemic in Sicily and the Mediterranean basin. Even though it is responsible for 20,000 to 40,000 deaths per year, this parasitic infection is still considered a neglected tropical disease. People Living with HIV (PLWH) are considered at high-risk of developing Leishmaniasis and, despite the introduction of Highly Active Anti-Retroviral Therapy (HAART), mortality rate and relapses prevalence are still high in coinfected people. CASE REPORT: We present a case of HIV-Leishmania coinfection, posing the attention on the atypical signs and symptoms and the importance of thinking about other causes than the HIV infection progression when the patient presents with a worsening of his immune status during HAART. CONCLUSION: This parasitic disease has a high mortality rate, so it is mandatory to think about it in all the patients having a low CD4+ T-cell count and an inverted CD4/CD8 ratio under HAART.

Unusual signs and symptoms in HIV-positive patients coinfected with leishmania spp: The importance of neglected tropical disease in differential diagnosis

Ceccarelli M.;Condorelli F.;Nunnari G.;
2018

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Leishmaniasis is a parasitic disease affecting both animals and humans, acquired with the bite of sand flies or, in Injection Drug Users (IDUs), with contaminated needles, still hypoendemic in Sicily and the Mediterranean basin. Even though it is responsible for 20,000 to 40,000 deaths per year, this parasitic infection is still considered a neglected tropical disease. People Living with HIV (PLWH) are considered at high-risk of developing Leishmaniasis and, despite the introduction of Highly Active Anti-Retroviral Therapy (HAART), mortality rate and relapses prevalence are still high in coinfected people. CASE REPORT: We present a case of HIV-Leishmania coinfection, posing the attention on the atypical signs and symptoms and the importance of thinking about other causes than the HIV infection progression when the patient presents with a worsening of his immune status during HAART. CONCLUSION: This parasitic disease has a high mortality rate, so it is mandatory to think about it in all the patients having a low CD4+ T-cell count and an inverted CD4/CD8 ratio under HAART.
CD4: CD8 ratio
Coinfection
HIV
Leishmania
Visceral leishmania
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11769/483203
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