There is wide evidence that CRC could be prevented by regular physical activity, keeping a healthy body weight, and following a healthy and balanced diet. Many sporadic CRCs develop via the traditional adenoma-carcinoma pathway, starting as premalignant lesions represented by conventional, tubular or tubulovillous adenomas. The gut bacteria play a crucial role in regulating the host metabolism and also contribute to preserve intestinal barrier function and an effective immune response against pathogen colonization. The microbiota composition is different among people, and is conditioned by many environmental factors, such as diet, chemical exposure, and the use of antibiotic or other medication. The gut microbiota could be directly involved in the development of colorectal adenomas and the subsequent progression to CRC. Specific gut bacteria, such as Fusobacterium nucleatum, Escherichia coli, and enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis, could be involved in colorectal carcinogenesis. Potential mechanisms of CRC progression may include DNA damage, promotion of chronic inflammation, and release of bioactive carcinogenic metabolites. The aim of this review was to summarize the current knowledge on the role of the gut microbiota in the development of CRC, and discuss major mechanisms of microbiota-related progression of the adenoma-carcinoma sequence. © 2020 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

Gut microbiota and colorectal cancer development: A closer look to the adenoma-carcinoma sequence

Vacante M.
Primo
;
Ciuni R.
Secondo
;
Basile F.
Penultimo
;
Biondi A.
Ultimo
2020-01-01

Abstract

There is wide evidence that CRC could be prevented by regular physical activity, keeping a healthy body weight, and following a healthy and balanced diet. Many sporadic CRCs develop via the traditional adenoma-carcinoma pathway, starting as premalignant lesions represented by conventional, tubular or tubulovillous adenomas. The gut bacteria play a crucial role in regulating the host metabolism and also contribute to preserve intestinal barrier function and an effective immune response against pathogen colonization. The microbiota composition is different among people, and is conditioned by many environmental factors, such as diet, chemical exposure, and the use of antibiotic or other medication. The gut microbiota could be directly involved in the development of colorectal adenomas and the subsequent progression to CRC. Specific gut bacteria, such as Fusobacterium nucleatum, Escherichia coli, and enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis, could be involved in colorectal carcinogenesis. Potential mechanisms of CRC progression may include DNA damage, promotion of chronic inflammation, and release of bioactive carcinogenic metabolites. The aim of this review was to summarize the current knowledge on the role of the gut microbiota in the development of CRC, and discuss major mechanisms of microbiota-related progression of the adenoma-carcinoma sequence. © 2020 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
2020
Colibactin
Fusobacterium Nucleatum
Intestine Flora
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11769/489961
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