This study investigates the reliability of a pilot hybrid constructed wetland (H-CW), located in Eastern Sicily (Italy). To address the uncertainty associated with implementing representative monitoring during highly variable storm events, unique to Mediterranean conditions, a recipe for semi-synthetic stormwater was used to evaluate the removal efficiency of the system. This was characterised by metals (Cd, Cr, Fe, Pb, Cu, Zn) and relative concentrations typically found in urban stormwater runoff (SR). Approximately one month of intensive monitoring activities were carried out and quality analyses were conducted on three matrices comprising the pilot H-CW: water, biomass (Canna indica, Typha latifolia), and volcanic gravel substrate. Metal retention in early clogging matter (SS) was also examined. The results showed a significantly high H-CW efficiency for the removal of all metals (70–98%) already at the horizontal flow unit outflow, confirming its strategic role. A metal mass balance analysis was also conducted to describe the retention capacity and influence of each system component on the overall efficiency (ranging from 87.8% for Cr to 99.2% for Pb). Metal removal was mostly related to sediment and substrate processes, while plants exhibited root bioaccumulation and phytostabilisation capacity even with a limited impact on overall system retention. The pilot H-CW exhibits characteristics suitable for the treatment of metal-enriched stormwater runoff and validates the useful application of decentralised natural systems for water resource management.

Metal removal processes in a pilot hybrid constructed wetland for the treatment of semi-synthetic stormwater

Ventura D.;Ferrante M.;Copat C.;Grasso A.;Milani M.;Sacco A.;Licciardello F.;Cirelli G. L.
2021-01-01

Abstract

This study investigates the reliability of a pilot hybrid constructed wetland (H-CW), located in Eastern Sicily (Italy). To address the uncertainty associated with implementing representative monitoring during highly variable storm events, unique to Mediterranean conditions, a recipe for semi-synthetic stormwater was used to evaluate the removal efficiency of the system. This was characterised by metals (Cd, Cr, Fe, Pb, Cu, Zn) and relative concentrations typically found in urban stormwater runoff (SR). Approximately one month of intensive monitoring activities were carried out and quality analyses were conducted on three matrices comprising the pilot H-CW: water, biomass (Canna indica, Typha latifolia), and volcanic gravel substrate. Metal retention in early clogging matter (SS) was also examined. The results showed a significantly high H-CW efficiency for the removal of all metals (70–98%) already at the horizontal flow unit outflow, confirming its strategic role. A metal mass balance analysis was also conducted to describe the retention capacity and influence of each system component on the overall efficiency (ranging from 87.8% for Cr to 99.2% for Pb). Metal removal was mostly related to sediment and substrate processes, while plants exhibited root bioaccumulation and phytostabilisation capacity even with a limited impact on overall system retention. The pilot H-CW exhibits characteristics suitable for the treatment of metal-enriched stormwater runoff and validates the useful application of decentralised natural systems for water resource management.
2021
Macrophyte
Metals
Root stabilisation
Sediment
Sicily
Substrate processes
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11769/491226
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