The island of Pantelleria, located in the Sicily Channel Rift Zone (Italy), has been the site of violent peralkaline silicic magmatism alternating with minor effusive to low-intensity Strombolian eruptions of basaltic composition. The basaltic rock suites exposed on the island were sampled to investigate the plumbing system dynamics through the study of chemical stratigraphy and temporal records of olivine crystals. Our petrographic and geochemical observations, together with the compositional variability of olivine, suggest different evolutionary histories for basaltic magmas erupted over two major periods divided by the ~45 ka Green Tuff (GT) eruption. Core-to-rim compositional traverses across olivine crystals document different types of zoning. We recognized olivine zones affected by Fo oscillations at very fine scales in the inner cores, rims and/or in intermediate portions of crystals and used them to reconstruct the residence and passage of crystals through different magmatic environments, with P–T–ƒO2 and compositional characteristics constrained by thermodynamic modeling. The sequence of magmatic environments evidenced by olivine zoning indicate that the pre-GT volcanic period was dominated by injection at shallow crustal levels (~300–200 MPa) of primitive melts, initially moving from a deep storage zone at the crust-mantle boundary. Supply of this magma significantly decreased after the GT eruption, while the dynamics of magma transfer within the upper portion of the plumbing system were greatly enhanced. The diffusive relaxation of olivine zoning provided the timing of storage and migration of a crystal through different environments. For magmas feeding the ancient (>45 ka) basaltic activity we retrieved transfer histories that are much longer (up to ~3 years) if compared with those calculated for the post-GT basalts (1–9 months). The compositional and temporal dataset presented in this study supports the idea that the GT eruption and the subsequent collapse of the volcanic edifice could have caused major changes to the internal structural setting of Pantelleria, creating more favorable conditions for the migration of magmas in the upper portions of the plumbing system.

Changing modes and rates of mafic magma supply at Pantelleria (Sicily Channel, Southern Italy): new perspectives on the volcano factory drawn upon olivine records

Marisa Giuffrida;Marco Viccaro
2020-01-01

Abstract

The island of Pantelleria, located in the Sicily Channel Rift Zone (Italy), has been the site of violent peralkaline silicic magmatism alternating with minor effusive to low-intensity Strombolian eruptions of basaltic composition. The basaltic rock suites exposed on the island were sampled to investigate the plumbing system dynamics through the study of chemical stratigraphy and temporal records of olivine crystals. Our petrographic and geochemical observations, together with the compositional variability of olivine, suggest different evolutionary histories for basaltic magmas erupted over two major periods divided by the ~45 ka Green Tuff (GT) eruption. Core-to-rim compositional traverses across olivine crystals document different types of zoning. We recognized olivine zones affected by Fo oscillations at very fine scales in the inner cores, rims and/or in intermediate portions of crystals and used them to reconstruct the residence and passage of crystals through different magmatic environments, with P–T–ƒO2 and compositional characteristics constrained by thermodynamic modeling. The sequence of magmatic environments evidenced by olivine zoning indicate that the pre-GT volcanic period was dominated by injection at shallow crustal levels (~300–200 MPa) of primitive melts, initially moving from a deep storage zone at the crust-mantle boundary. Supply of this magma significantly decreased after the GT eruption, while the dynamics of magma transfer within the upper portion of the plumbing system were greatly enhanced. The diffusive relaxation of olivine zoning provided the timing of storage and migration of a crystal through different environments. For magmas feeding the ancient (>45 ka) basaltic activity we retrieved transfer histories that are much longer (up to ~3 years) if compared with those calculated for the post-GT basalts (1–9 months). The compositional and temporal dataset presented in this study supports the idea that the GT eruption and the subsequent collapse of the volcanic edifice could have caused major changes to the internal structural setting of Pantelleria, creating more favorable conditions for the migration of magmas in the upper portions of the plumbing system.
2020
olivine zoning
basaltic rocks
Pantelleria
diffusion chronometry
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11769/497596
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